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The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina came about as a result of the breakup of the Communist Party Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Euro Zone is a Danger Zone. It has always been like that and seems like it won`t be any better. 1995 is not long time ago. It sounds like a movie when we hear the story about Bosnian town of Srebrenica were 8,000 muslim were murdered and buried in mass graves.

And worst of all; A military commander is behind the worst atrocity since World War II. The UN Hague tribunal sentenced former Bosnian Serb military commander Ratko Mladic to life in prison for genocide and other crimes. This is unbelievable.

 

The conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina resulted in a mass grave with about 100,000 people, and that is a huge crime against the humanity. The court also convicted Mladic (74) for violating the rules of war. The crimes wouldn`t be committed as they were, the court said.

“The crimes committed were among the most heinous known to human kind,” Judge Alphons Orie said at the International Criminal Tribunal on Wednesday.

Mladic is not alone. Former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic is another one with war-crimes and the potential for reigniting disputes remains high.

This is all about the nations that emerged from Yugoslavia with ethnic lines by five wars. They tried to increase regional cooperation with the goal of following other ex-Communist nations into the European Union.

Bosnia-Herzegovina were annexed by pro-Hitler Croatian puppet state in 1941. Thousands of Serbs, Jews and Gypsies were sent to death camps.

From 1945 – 1991, Bosnia is part of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY).

SFRY was the Yugoslav state in southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.

It was a socialist state and a federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia with Belgrade as its capital. In addition; it included two autonomous provinces within Serbia: Kosovo and Vojvodina.

The SFRY tracks back to 26 November 1942 when the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia was formed during World War II. On 29 November 1945, the Federal People`s Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed after the disposal of King Peter II thus ending the monarchy.

The new communist government originally sided with the Eastern bloc under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito at the beginning of the Cold War, but the SFRY pursued a policy of neutrality after the Tito-Stalin split of 1948, and it became one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement.

Following the death of Tito on 4 May 1980, rising ethnic nationalism in the late 1980`s led do dissidence among the multiple ethnicities within the constituent republics. With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, inter-republic talks on transformation of the federation also failed and led to recognition of their independency by some European states in 1991.

This led to the federation collapsing along federal borders, followed by the start of the Yugoslav Wars and the final downfall and breakup of the federation on 27 April 1992.

Two of its republics, Serbia and Montenegro, remained within the reconstituted Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, but the union was not recognized internationally as the official successor state to the SFRY.

Following a number of violent incidents in early 1992, the war is commonly viewed as having started on 6 April 1992. The same day that the United States and European Economic Community (EEC) recognised Bosnia and Herzegovina. (There is debate over the start of the Bosnian War).

The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina came about as a result of the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Following the collapse of Communism in 1991, nationalists win first multiparty elections and form coalition.

A crisis emerged in Yugoslavia as a result of the weakening of the confederation system at the end of the Cold War. In Yugoslavia, the national communist party, the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, was losing its ideological potency.

Meanwhile, ethnic nationalism experienced a renaissance in the 1980`s after violence broke out in Kosovo, while the goal of Serbian nationalists was the centralisation of Yugoslavia, other nationalities in Yugoslavia aspired to the federalization and the decentralisation of the state.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a former Ottoman province and has historically been a multi-ethnic state.

The war was part of the breakup of Yugoslavia, following the Slovenian and Croatian secessions from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1991, the multi-ethnic Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

This was rejected by the political representatives of the Bosnian Serbs, who had boycotted the referendum. Following Bosnia and Herzegovinas declaration of independence (which gained international recognition), the Bosnian Serbs, led by Radovan Karadzic and supported by the Serbian government of Slobodan Milosevic and the Yugoslav Peoples Arma (JNA), mobilised their forces inside Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to secure ethnic Serb territory, then war soon spread across the country, accompanied by ethnic cleansing.

Events such as the Siege of Sarajevo and the Srebrenica massacre later became iconic of the conflict.

2,2 million were displaced. 20,000 women were raped, and 100,000 killed during the war.

People with inside information said Serbia waged war in Bosnia. Serbian strongman was Slobodan Milosevic who died in 2006. Mladic was arrested 15 years after he went into hiding following the fall of Slobodan Milosevic.

Bosnia-Herzegovina is deeply divided nations with three truths about the same war. Bosnia is one of the poorest nations in Europe and three ethnic groups are making them a crippled state with a complicated power structure.

They are also divided by religion were Bosnia is home to 3,517 million people were 50% of them are muslims, 31% Serbs and 15% Croats.

Pakistan defied the UN`s ban on supply of arms and airlifted missiles to the Bosnians Muslims, while after the Srebrenica and Markale massacres, NATO intervened in 1995 with Operation Deliberate Force targeting the positions of the Army of the republica Srpska, which proved key in ending the war.

The war brought to an end after the signing of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina in Paris on 14 December 1995.

This is the most devastating conflict in Europe since the end of World War II.

Is it over now? Why do some people talk about a silent civil war in Europe right now?

 

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and may not reflect those of Shiny bull. The author has made every effort to ensure accuracy of information provided; however, neither Shiny bull nor the author can guarantee such accuracy. This article is strictly for informational purposes only. It is not a solicitation to make any exchange in precious metal products, commodities, securities or other financial instruments. Shiny bull and the author of this article do not accept culpability for losses and/ or damages arising from the use of this publication.

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The New Silk Road is the largest economic development project in history

The largest economic development project in history could have dramatic ripple effects throughout the world economy. China is building the world`s greatest economic development and construction project ever undertaken:

The New Silk Road.

 

Silk route

(Picture: Extend of Silk Road. Red is land route and blue is sea route)

 

The Silk Road is a network of trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers from China and India to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time.

Extending 4,000 miles (6437 kilometers), the Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in Chinese silk carried out along its length, beginning during the Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD). The Central Asian sections of the trade routes were expanded around 114 BC by the Han dynasty, largely through the missions and explorations of Chinese imperial envoy, Zhang Qian.

The Chinese took great interest in the safety of their trade products and extended the Great Wall of China to ensure the protection of the trade route.

Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the civilizations of China, the indian subcontinent, Persia, Europe, the Horn of Africa and Arabia, opening long-distance, political and economic relations between the civilizations.

The main traders during antiquity were the Chinese, Persians, Somalis, Greeks, Syrians, Romans, Armenians, Indians, and Bactrians, and from the 5th to the 8th century the Sogdians. Following the emergence of Islam, Arab traders became prominent.

The Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative Chinese silk trade. The German terms Seidenstraße were coined by Ferdinand von Richthofen, who made seven expeditions to China from 1868 to 1872.

The new Silk Road will be massive, and the ambitious vision is to resurrect the ancient Silk Road as a modern transit, trade, and economic corridor that runs from Shanghai to Berlin. The «Road» will traverse China, Mongolia, Russia, Belarus, Poland, and Germany, extending more than 8,000 miles, creating an economic zone that extends over one-third the circumference of the earth.

The plan envisions building high-speed railroads, roads and highways, energy transmission and distributions networks, and fiber optic networks. Many cities and ports along the route will be targeted for economic development.

An equally essential part of the plan is a sea-based «Maritime Silk Road» (MSR) component, as ambitious as its land-based project, linking China with the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea through Central Asia and the Indian Ocean.

Three continents will be connected when the ancient Silk Road is completed; Asia, Europe and Africa. The Chain of infrastructure projects will create the world`s largest economic corridor, covering a population of 4,4 billion and an economic output of $21 trillion.

The idea for reviving the New Silk Road was first announced in 2013 by the Chinese President, Xi Jinping. As part of the plan, in 2014, the Chinese leader also announced the launch of an Asian International Bank (AIIB), providing seed funding for the project, with an initial Chinese contribution of $47 billion.

China has invited the international community of nations to take a major role as bank charter members and partners in the project. Members will be expected to contribute, with additional funding by international funds, including the World bank, investments from private and public companies, and local governments.

58 nations have signed on to become charter bank members, including most of Western Europe, along with many Silk Road and Asian countries. After failed attempts by the U.S to persuade allies against joining the bank, the U.S reversed course, and now says that it has always supported the project, a disingenuous position considering the fact that U.S opposition was hardly a secret.

The Wall Street Journal reported in November 2014 that the U.S has also lobbied hard against Chinese plans for a new infrastructure development bank.

Russia is fully integrated into the project.

The Huffington Post`s Alastair Crooke has this to say on the matter: «For very different motives, the key pillars of the region (Iran, Turkey, Egypt and Pakistan) are re-orienting eastwards. It is not fully appreciated in the West how important China`s «Belt and Road» initiaive is to this move (and Russia, of course is fully integrated into the project).

Regional states can see that China is very serious indeed about creating huge infrastructure projects from Asia to Europe. They can also see what occurred with the Asia Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), as the world piled in (to America`s very evident dismay). These states intend to be a part of it.»

Buttressing this effort, China plans to injecting at least $62 billion into banks to support the New Silk Road. The China Development Bank (CDB) will receive $32 billion, the Export Import Bank of China (EXIM) will take on $30 billion, and the Chinese government will also pump additional capital into the Agricultural Development Bank of China (ADBC).

Will the U.S join the effort? If the new Trans-Pacific Partnership (without Russia and China, two Pacific powers) is any indication, U.S participation seems unlikely and opposition all but certain.

The project is expected to take decades, with costs running into the hundreds of billions of dollars, if not trillions. What that will mean for the world economy and trade is almost inconceivable. This project will face many geopolitical abstractions. It has already started.

The U.S President Barack Obama said; «If we don`t write the rules, China will write the rules out in that region,» he said in defence of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP).

Beyond the riches of silks, spices, and jewellery, it could be argued that the most important thing that Marco Polo brought back from China was a famous nautical and world map that was the basis for one of the most famous maps published in Europe, one that helped spark the Age of Discovery.

Christopher Columbus was guided by that map and was known to have a well-annotated copy of Marco Polo`s travel tales with him on his voyage of discovery of a new route to India. The decisions about the new Silk Road are massive.

The geopolitical conflicts over the project could lead to a new cold war.

 


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Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and may not reflect those of Shiny bull. The author has made every effort to ensure accuracy of information provided; however, neither Shiny bull nor the author can guarantee such accuracy. This article is strictly for informational purposes only. It is not a solicitation to make any exchange in precious metal products, commodities, securities or other financial instruments. Shiny bull and the author of this article do not accept culpability for losses and/ or damages arising from the use of this publication. UA-63539824-1.

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