Tag Archives: Democracy

You`re vote doesn`t matter

President Trump lost the election in his second term. He lost because president Biden got far more votes than Trump. Not only that. Biden is the most popular president in the United States ever. No one is even near. Not Obama. Nor Clinton. Nobody.

But how is it possible? Biden was just sitting in his own basement during the pandemic, while Trump talket to 80,000 live on a football-stadium and had a tremendous rally. People were enthusiastic about Trump and bought flags and hats, but nobody cared about Biden. It doesn`t make sence. What in the world happened?

Photo by Michael Judkins on Pexels.com

The Deep State fixed it. The establishment was in a big war against Trump, and we all know it. Trump is one of the few presidents who didn`t do everything the establishment said to him. He did what he thought was the right thing to do.

In other words; the president is a puppet. And that can be a huge problem. One of the biggest puppets today is president Joe Biden. As we can see, the deep state is giving him a lot of notes that he has in his pocket when he talk to MSM (mainstreem media). This is the opposite of Trump.

One good example of this is when president Bush said that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction right after 9/11. The United States went to war on that information, but it was all a big lie. But where did it come from? The establishment of course. The deep state.

The same thing can be said about Afghanistan, and Hillary Clinton told you all the pure truth about the war in Afghanistan live on Fox News, July 18, 2010. She said that the United States created the problems in Afghanistan. They created a monster.

They went to Pakistan and supported Mujaheeden with guns. They trained them to fight against the communists Soviet Union. And they won. But it didn`t stop there. A new problem rose, and the next problem was those the U.S has trained in Pakistan which is Taliban today.

So what are we gonna do in this world if presidents, prime ministers and politicians are powerless? What are we gonna do in this world if ordinary people are powerless? You`re vote doesn`t matter. The establishment does. The Deep state does.

We all know that the establishment was in war against Trump, and MSM was on the same team. They made the false narrative about the Russia-gate. Made a lot of lies about Trump and started a character murder campaign.

But now, it seems like the MSM is turning their back on president Biden. They are beginning to understand that they have been in bed with the Deep State. They lied about the weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, but they lied about the war in Afghanistan for about two decades too. What a shame.

I have talked about this for years, and John F. Kennedy warned you about the intel and the military industrial complex in the early 60`s. We all know that he wanted to crush CIA and he didn`t feel good about the military. Trump was in the same boat and was in a war against the establishment.

The establishment said they wanted to go to war against Trump right after the election in 2017, and we all know the rest of that story. We also know that Trump lost to a much «better» candidate in 2020.

But everything is controled by the Deep State with unelected generals, intel operations and MSM on top of that. This is extremely dangerous for a democracy, because it isn`t the people`s will anymore. It is something above the people. In other words; it`s not a democracy anymore.

Democracy is a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives. It is a system where people can change their rulers in a peaceful manner and the government is given the right to rule because the people say it may.

The people. Not the Deep State. Not the establishment.

Attorney Sidney Powell said she wanted to release the Kraken during the election earlier this year, but instead a lot of extremists stormed Capital Hill and tried to overthrow the governement. We all know that the police helped them.

I think Powell will be back and last word isn`t said in this case. It`s about the U.S democracy, and Trump was the one to fix it. To save America and make it great again.

To contact the author: post@shinybull.com

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and may not reflect those of Shinybull.com. The author has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of the information provided; however, neither Shinybull.com nor the author can guarantee such accuracy. This article is strictly for informational purposes only. It is not a solicitation to make any exchange in precious metal products, commodities, securities, or other financial instruments. Shinybull.com and the author of this article do not accept culpability for losses and/ or damages arising from the use of this publication.

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The communist party coup took place in Kabul on April 28, 1978

Afghanistan is a beautiful country, and only a few decades ago, people in Kabul were singing and dancing to live music and had fun. Kabul was probably much better than European countries. So, what in the world went wrong in Afghanistan?

Afghanistan had cinemas, restaurants and hotels, and people who lived in Kabul four decades ago describes it as romantic and better than Europe. They have high mountains and the weather is often sunny. It`s one of the best countries in Asia.

But something happened. Someone took the country.

In the 1960`s the King and the Queen opened up the country to the world after centuries of isolation. They also enabled women to partisipate in public life. They became feminists without even knowing what it was all about.

In 1964, according to the constitution, women also got the right to wote. Everything was fine and there was no segregation between men and women. Kabul was a modern city. People were dressed like Western people. They were listening to Western music and thought the Western style was the right thing for them.

People were poor but very happy, but then a lot of tourists came in to Kabul. And suddenly, it was time for a «hippy» era. Just like the West. Hippy music. Hippy fitness. A hippy style society. Tourists went to historical places to see Buddah.

But then, something happened.

A Western-style protest movement started in Afghanistan. Students began talking about Revolution. They talked about Communism and women`s rights. They said it should be more equality between men and women. Nor should it be discrimination.

Kabul became more and more like the Western world, but some people didn`t like that. And that was people in Pedesaan were 80 percent of the population live. Afghanistan had a conflict going on.

Pedesaan was way ahead of the modern city Kabul, and people didn`t like the changes. People in Pedesaan was more conservative and people were following tribal traditions and the teachings of Islam.

Women were isolated and could be forced to mirrage with someone they didn`t love. The Muslims were worried about the progress in Kabul. The problem at that time is that people were sleeping. They didn`t see the real problem. And the problem was their own «class difference.»

In the early 70`s, the first Islamic organisation was founded. Their goal was to protect their traditional lifestyle. It was the birth of the political Islamism in Afghanistan. This is the era were people in Afghanistan became divided in two groups.

Left and Right.

Communists on the left side, and Islamists on the right side.

The Islamist movement were blaming Communists, and Communists were blaming Islamists and the problems escalated. No one were able to guide the people and a blamegame started istead of keeping the great value of national unity among the people.

To everybody`s surprise; the communists managed to take power. First in 1973. It was a coup and they overthrow the monarchy. And now, the country became a republic with its first ever president.

Mohammed Daoud Khan became a President of Afghanistan from 1973 to 1978. Mohammed was a cusine of the former King, but in 1978, the communists desided that their time has come and seized power for themselves.

In just one night, they killed Daoud Khan and 23 members of his family. The communists called the bloody take over «april revolution.» (this is the same mindset as the Leninist communist in Soviet when they killed the Romanov family in their communist revolution).

The communist party coup took place in Kabul on April 28, 1978.

The new government tried to form the country into a new communist country thru radical reforms. People in Kabul had red flags and the communists took all oppositions. The communists first target were Muslims. (this is similar to the CCP today).

The communists arrested you if you were praying. You would also go to jail. This time was the most brutal time of the history of the country. Thousands of people was taken and all of the disappeared.

The communists took teachers that talked about religion. Many of them were dropped by a plane. Isamic activists started to build activist groups in 1979 and one of them was a group called Mujahideen (fighters of the holy was).

This revolution is an Islamic revolution, Islamist Party Leader Gulbuddin Hekmatyar said. Their goal was to establish a pure Islamic system in Afghanistan. Freedom and liberation of Afghanistan.

In Moscow, former Second Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Leonid Brezhnev was worried. Afghanistan was a nabouring communist state, and a successful Islamic revolution could send a dangerous message to the 50 million Muslims in the USSR.

Brezhnev dicided to send in troops in December 27, 1979. and that was the beginning of a long and expensive war that led to bankruptsy.

10,000 prisoners were released in one day. For some it was hard to find back to their own family members. Afghanistan was under forign occupation.

Afghanistan changed like never before. People were leaving because it was not their country anymore. Others were chanting «allahu akbar» at night, and thousands were protesting on the streets.

The Communists in Soviet Union supported the brutal communist regime in Afghanistan and that wasn`t music for the people. The resistance among the people were growing and they distrubuted papers at night and wrote on the walls; Long live Islam.

In the United States, they were quick to react to the Soviet offensive.

Afghanistan became the new epicenter of the Cold War.

US President Jimmy Carter said in a speech that the Soviet invation was an extremely threat to peace. Carter also said that Soviet now can control much of the world`s oil supply.

Washington started to support Mujahideen with money and weapons.

US National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brezezinski appeared to Afghanistan`s religion pride in 1980 when he visited Pakistan. One day, he said, you will take your country back because God is on your side.

The communists had big problems to fight back against the Mujahideen guerillas. The only place the communist had control was in Kabul. The communist government said no to women education. No freedom for women. So, women was used as a political tool. But people didn`t like it at all.

The Mujahdin used terrorist attacks in Kabul to destabilise the society. It was too dangerous to be there, so 3 million went to Pakistan or Iran to join their Muslim brothers. Peshawar near Islamabad in Pakistan became a hotspot of resistance.

They got the weapons they needed in Pakistan. And a Sudi also set up a camp there. His name was Osama Bin Laden. He recruited and supported all foriegn fighters from all over the Arab world to join the Afghan jihad. Radical Islam spread in the refugee camp. They started to brainwash the children and they are the one who became Taliban.

The countries that were involved trained conservative people and made monsters to get rid of the USSR. But the biggest problems was to know who the civilians and who the enemies was.

The war in Afghanistan was very expensive for the USSR, and in 1986, Mikhail Gorbachev desiced to withraw his troops. He said; «Counterrevolution and imperialism have turned Afghanistan into a bleeding wound.

We should like, in the nearest future, to withdraw the Soviet troops stationed in Afghanistan.» They took the troops out of Afghanistan in 1989.

People in Afghanistan were so happy. Finally, the USSR are going back home. And the people was feeling free. They won the war.

But, a lot of things happened. It wasn`t over.

The communist government still had control over Kabul, and was the final obstacle to become an Islamic republic. In other words; the war was not yet over. On April 24, 1992, The Mujahideen took control over Kabul.

It was a critical moment were the Mujahideen took over the presidential palace. The dream to become an independent Isamist state was on the way to be fulfilled. But instead, other groups of people started to fight against each other to take back the control. A new civil war started. Everybody was fighting against everybody.

Instead of confronting each other, they used civil women and child as tools in a brutal war. The fighters could have killed each other but they killed civilans instead.

Now, Kabul was stigmatized. Isolated from the rest of the world. Deserted by Westerners. The British embassy was closed. The US embassy was closed. The French embassy was also closed.

«My feeling is that the UN and the Western powers were interested in Afghanistan as long as we fought against the USSR. Against communism. It was a common enemy. Then their interest completely disappeared. They abandoned us,» Mujahideen Commander Ahmad Shah Massoud said back then.

Many different groups of people were fighting against each other but nobody knew why they were fighting. It`s between commanders they said. They attacked civilians and especially woman. They raped them and cut of their breasts.

In 1994, a new force emerged; The Taliban. An Arabic name for «students.» many of them came from Quran-schools. The Taliban promised to restore peace, order and morality. They had massive support from Pakistan. Many of them were grown up in refugee camps in Pakistan.

When Taliban came, they were welcomed by the people in Afghanistan. Finally, someone who wants to restore peace, order and morality. People thought that Taliban will take over the country and everything will be fine again. People supported them.

The Taliban took Kabul on September 27, 1996.

The Taliban changed Afghanistan repidly. The banned alcohol, films and all forms for entertainment. They smashed all Televisions on the streets. The Taliban ended the civil war and made peace.

But, they also took people`s freedom. What is peace without freedom?

Women suffered the most. They were fobidden to study or work. Girls were banned from school. They closed all the schools after the Islamic revolution. It was very sad for the kids, because the couldn`t learn to read and write.

The Taliban send people to the mosque and ban people from going out because these all are Islamic laws. They hunted all the women in Afghanistan. Why are you doing this? Why are you doing that? And so on. If someone say it is extremist, so be it, Taliban said.

Afghanistan became a hotpad for Islamic fundamentalism and it was under the Taliban protection that Osama Bin Laden returned to the country after a long war against the USSR. Osama Bin Laden founded the terrorist network Al-Qaeda to carry out a global jihad.

One of the attacks is said to be September 11. President Bush started a new war in Afghanistan. A few weeks after the attack on twin towers, the British and US soldiers attacked Al Quada leaders and their training camps.

The end of the Taliban regime ended on November 13, 2001.

People in Afghanistan was happy. Now, they are free. Taliban is gone and the United States will bring peace and freedom to Kabul and Afghanistan. Finally. People could go back to school again. Women could start to work again. They were free.

On a NATO command, 52 countries were placed in Afghanistan and in 2003, people voted for a new government. They tried to establish a new democracy. They were working hard to develop a new constitution.

December 17, 2003 – Constitutional Convention.

Millions of dollars were sent to Afghanistan to rebuild the country and establish a new democracy. But the money came into the pockets of the war lords who had, once again, returned to power. Rich people built supermarkets and houses like the one in Europe. Poor people remained poor.

Corruption started to emerge and new conflicts was rising. Corruption to access education, health care, jobs and justice. That alone has huge impact on the election and the politics.

Taliban recruited new members and prepared a new comeback. Despite the escalating violence, 2014 saw the withdrawal of most international coalition troops. Many aid organizations likewise left the country.

In February 2020, the US signed a peace agreement with the Taliban and announced the complete withdrawl of its troops within 14 months. But the Taliban have subsequently taken advantage of the resulting vacuum and the fragility of Afghan democracy to overrun the country.

The future and security of Afghanistan and its women is once again in jeoparady.

In August 2021, the Taliban overruns nearly all major Afghan cities in just 10 days. On 15 August, they enter Kabul. The Afghan government hands over power to the Taliban.

Afghanistan is the land of endless wars. They fought against Alexander the Great, Djengis Khan and Britain. Now, they are fighting against Taliban. 80 percent of the population is depressed. They have lost their hope and dreams. Does it stop here, and what is the next chapter?

To contact the author: post@shinybull.com

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and may not reflect those of Shinybull.com. The author has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of the information provided; however, neither Shinybull.com nor the author can guarantee such accuracy. This article is strictly for informational purposes only. It is not a solicitation to make any exchange in precious metal products, commodities, securities, or other financial instruments. Shinybull.com and the author of this article do not accept culpability for losses and/ or damages arising from the use of this publication.

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The military established a junta that suspended all political activity in Chile in 1973

Abraham Lincoln saved America for the first time in 1864. Donald Trump tried to do the same for the second time. What happens today is similar to what happened under Lincoln. In January 1838, Abraham Lincoln said this;

Citizens seeing their property destroyed; their families insulted, and their lives endangered; their persons injured, and seeing nothing in the prospect that forebodes a change for the better. They become tired of, and disgusted with, a government that offers them no protection.»

If you see people in your own country do things like that, you have to react. You must do something. You must punish those who are responsible for the crime you see. If you face fascism right in front of your eyes without doing something, you deserve to live in chaos, and that`s what we can call the U.S for right now.

When Abraham Lincoln stood for re-election in November 1864 he knew that defeat could bring the civil war to a premature end and shatter his dreams of abolishing slavery. Lincoln fixed the problems and saved America.

Now, we know that the middle class is wiped out and they do not recover. This is a sign of a weak government because their rule number one should be the safety of their own people. That is not what we see today.

The United States is at war with its own people. It is so much corruption and people don`t care. We know how they treated their own president. We know what they have done to other presidents. The United States went from cold war to a war on terror, but that cannot continue.

We can all see the tension in the U.S Congress. We can all see how divided the U.S is, but we have seen similar things like this before. In 1973. On 11 September 1973 in the Chilean coup d’etat, it was a military coup in Chile that deposed the Popular Unity government of President Salvador Allende.

After an extended period of social unrest and political tension between the opposition-controlled congress and the socialist President, as well as economic warfare ordered by U.S president Richard Nixon, a group of military officers led by General Augusto Pinochet and Admiral Josè Toribio Merino seized power in a coup, ending civilian rule.

The military established a junta that suspended all political activity in Chile and repressed left-wing movements, especially communist and socialist parties and the Revolutionary Left Movement (MIR).

Augusto Pinochet rose to supreme power within a year of the coup and was formally declared President of Chile in late 1974. The Nixon administration, which had worked to create the conditions for the coup, promptly recognized the junta government and supported it in consolidating power.

Before the coup, Chile had been hailed as a beacon of democracy and political stability for decades, a period in which the rest of South America had been plagued by military juntas and «caudillismo.»

The collapse of Chilean democracy ended a succession of democratic governments in Chile, which had held democratic elections since 1932.

An internationally support plebiscite in 1988 held under the auspices of the military dictatorship was followed by a peaceful transition to an elected civilian government.

Allende contested the 1970 presidential election with Jorge Alessandri Rodriguez of the National Party and Radomiro Tomic of the Christian Democratic Party. Allende received 36,6% of the vote. Alessandri was a very close second with 35,3%, and Tomic third with 28,1%. Allende received the highest number of votes, according to the Chilean constitution and since none of the candidates won by an absolute majority, the National Congress had to decide among the candidates.

The 1925 constitution did not allow a person to be president for two consecutive terms.

The U.S feared the example of a «well-functioning socialist experiment» in the region and exerted diplomatic, economic, and covert pressure upon Chile`s elected socialist government.

At the end of 1971, the Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro made a four-week state visit to Chile, alarming American observers worried about the «Chilean Way to Socialism».

In 1972, economics minister Pedro Vuskovic adopted monetary policies that increased the amount of circulating currency and devaluated the escudo, which increased inflation to 140 percent in 1972 and engendered a black market economy.

The governments of Argentina (1966), Bolivia (1969), Brazil (1964), and Peru (1968) were all overthrown in coups and replaced by military governments. In June 1973 Uruguay joined the coup wave that swept through the region.

The United States of America know how to replace a government. They are experts and have been involved in multiple coup dètat`s around the world.

United States involvement in regime change describes actions taken by the United States government, both overt and covert, to alter, replace, or preserve foreign governments. In the latter half of the 19th century, the U.S government initiated actions for regime change mainly in Latin America and the Southwest Pacific, including the Spanish-American and Philippine-American wars.

At the onset of the 20th century, the United States shaped or installed governments in many countries around the world, including neighbors Panama, Honduras, Nicaragua, Mexico, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic.

The U.S was also involved in the coup in Egypt a few years ago. In February 2011, Hosni Mubarak resigned after 18 days of mass demonstrations that ended his 29-year rule of Egypt. The 2013 Egyptian coup dètat took place on 3 July 2013.

Egyptian army chief General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi led a coalition to remove the President of Egypt, Mohamed Morsi, from power and suspended the Egyptian constitution of 2012. The move came after the military`s ultimatum for the government to «resolve its differences» with protesters during widespread national protests.

The military arrested Morsi and Muslim Brotherhood leaders and declared Chief Justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court Adly Mansour as the interim president of Egypt. The announcement was followed by demonstrations and clashes between supporters and opponents of the move throughout Egypt.

In June 2012, Mohamed Morsi won the presidential election with 51,73% of total votes to become the first democratically elected president of Egypt. In June the same year, prior to Morsi being sworn in as President, the Supreme Constitutional Court ruled that the election law was unconstitutional and ordered the elected bodies dissolved.

President Morsi appointed additional members to the advisory council from 35 political parties and invited the elected bodies to discuss the ruling of the court.

During World War II, the United States helped overthrow many Nazi Germany or imperial Japanese puppet regimes. Examples include regimes in the Philippines, Korea, the Eastern portion of China, and much of Europe.

United States forces were also instrumental in ending the rule of Adolf Hitler over Germany and of Benito Mussolini over Italy.

75 years later, the U.S was attacked by Neo-Nazis at the Capitol Hill.

To contact the author: post@shinybull.com

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and may not reflect those of Shinybull.com. The author has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of the information provided; however, neither Shinybull.com nor the author can guarantee such accuracy. This article is strictly for informational purposes only. It is not a solicitation to make any exchange in precious metal products, commodities, securities, or other financial instruments. Shinybull.com and the author of this article do not accept culpability for losses and/ or damages arising from the use of this publication.

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8,000 new votes found in Pennsylvania and 2,600 uncounted ballots in Georgia

The Media Mob gave us a lie about foreign interference in the US election four years ago. They said Russia and Putin helped Trump to win the election. We all know that it was all a big lie. A hoax. But what now?

The Media Mob declared Biden as the new president, but that is also a lie. Trump`s team claims there is massive fraud in the US election 2020, which means we don`t know who the next president is yet.

Trump campaign adviser Erin Perrine said roughly 2,600 ballots in Georgia`s Floyd County have not been tallied. The ballots were recently found during a recount in the state for the 2020 presidential election. 8,000 new votes are also found in Pennsylvania and there is more to come.

This is serious because thousands of people didn`t have their voices heard, and that is not a democracy. It`s a banana republic or a dictatorship. Democracy is a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting. Fraud is therefore serious.

It`s a big problem when the Media Mob becomes a political party. All of them on the left side. It`s also problematic when the Media Mob makes decisions on behalf of the majority of the people. Democracy means that the people have the authority to choose their governing legislation.

Who people are and how authority is shared among them are core issues for democratic theory, development, and constitution. Cornerstones include freedom of assembly and freedom of speech, inclusiveness and equality, membership, consent, voting, right to life, and minority rights.

This is a wake-up call for everybody around the world. The software Dominion used is also used in other countries. That software wasn`t safe enough and it was easy to manipulate which means you can get the results you want if you are corrupt enough.

What`s important for the people now is to make sure it is a free and fair election. That being said, it is interesting to see that 70 percent of the people on the right side believe there was fraud while 96 percent of the people on the left side believe it was fair.

To contact the author: post@shinybull.com

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and may not reflect those of Shinybull.com. The author has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of the information provided; however, neither Shinybull.com nor the author can guarantee such accuracy. This article is strictly for informational purposes only. It is not a solicitation to make any exchange in precious metal products, commodities, securities, or other financial instruments. Shinybull.com and the author of this article do not accept culpability for losses and/ or damages arising from the use of this publication.

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England broke away from the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church 467 years ago and now they did it again with the European Union

MEP`s (Members og the European Parlieament) voted overwhelmingly to approve the withdrawal agreement today. MEP`s ratified the Brexit Withdrawel Agreement by 621 votes to 49 following an emotional debate in Brussels today.

The UK will leave the EU on Friday night this week, and Nigel Farage is the happiest man in the world right now.

Nigel Farage had a speech in the parliament today and said the EU is anti-democratic, while most British MEP`s who spoke expressed deep sadness about Brexit. Many of them predicted that the UK will return to EU some times in the future.

Brexit, Exit, United Kingdom, England
Picture: The UK out of the EU

The Brexit party leader said this earlier today: «I`m hoping this begins the end of this project. It`s a bad project, it isn`t just undemocratic it`s anti-democratic…..

There is a historic battle going on now across the West. In Europe, America and elswhere. It is globalism against populism. And you may loathe populism, but I`ll tell you a funny thing – it`s becoming very popular.

And it has great benefits. No more financial contributions, no more European Court of Justice, no more common fisheries policy, no more being talked down to, no more being bullied, no more Guy Verhofstadt.»

Guy Verhofstadt is a Belgian politician who was the leader of the Allicance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe from 2009 to 2019. He has been a MEP from Belgium since 2009. He was also a Prime Minister of Beligium from 1999 to 2008.

He led the Allicance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Group (ALDE) from 2009 to 2019, and founded the inter-parliamentarian federalist Spinelli Group. He has been the European Parliament`s Brexit Coordinator and Chair of the Brexit Steering Group since 2016.

Verhofstadt is an advocate for federalisation of the European Union, and earlier today he said this; «What is in fact threatening Britain`s sovereignty most – the rules of our single market or the fact that tomorrow they may be planting Chinese 5G masts in the British islands?…..

It is sad to see a country leaving that twice liberated us, has twice given its blood to liberate Europe…

In the last couple of days I have received hundreds of mails from British citizens saying they desperately want to stay or return….. So this vote is not an adieu, this vote, in my opinion, is only an au revoir.»

Verhofstadt and Farage know the history of the United Kingdom. What`s happening today is similar to the era of Henry VIII who broke England`s ties with the Roman Catholic Church, becoming the sole head of the English Church. It was time for the English Reformation.

The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th – century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.

These events were, in part, associated with the wider European Protestant Reformation, a religious and political movement that affected the practice of Christianity across western and central Europe.

Caused included the invention of the printing press and increased circulation of the Bible, and the transmission of new knowledge and ideas among scholars, the upper and middle classes and readers in general.

However, the various phases of the English Reformation, which also covered Wales and Ireland, were largely driven by changes in government policy, to which public opinion gradually accommodated itself.

The English Reformation was at the outset more of a political affair than a theological dispute. The reality of political differences between Rome and England allowed growing theological disputes to come to the force.

Until the break with Rome, it was the Pope and general councils of the church that declared doctrine. Church law was governed by canon law with final jurisdiction in Rome. Church taxes were paid straight to Rome, and the Pope had the final word in the appointment of bishops.

The break with Rome was effected by a series of acts of Parliament passed between 1532 and 1534, among the 1534 Act of Supremacy, which declared that Henry was the «Supreme Head on earth of the Church of England».

But this title was renounced by Mary I in 1553. Under Mary, the whole process was reversed and the Church of England was again placed under papal jurisdiction. Soon after, Elizabeth reintroduced the Protestant faith but in a more moderate manner.

The structure and theology of the church was a matter of fierce dispute for generations.

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Picture: The Pope

The violent aspect of these disputes, manifested in the English Civil Wars, ended when the last Roman Catholic monarch, James II was desposed, and Parliament asked William III and Mary II to rule jointly in conjunction with the English Bill of Rights in 1688 (in the «Glorious Revolution»), from which emerged a church polity with an establshed church and a number of non-conformist churches whose members at first suffered various civil disabilities that were removed ove time.

The legacy of the previous Roman Catholic heritage and establishment as the state church remained an issue for some time and still exists today. A Substantial but dwindling minority from the late 16th to early 19th centuries remained Roman Catholic in England. Their chuch organisation remained illegal until the Relief Act of 1829.

The Reformation was a clash of two opposed schemes of salvation. The Catholic Church taught that the contrite person could cooperate with God towards their salvation by performing good works. Medieval Catholic worship was centered on the Mass, the church’s offering of the sacrifice of Christ’s body and blood.

The Mass was also an offering of prayer by which the living could help souls in purgatory. Protestants taught that fallen humanity was helpless and under condemnation until gien the grace of God trhough faith.

They believed the Chatholic emphasis on purgatory was an obstacle to true faith in God and the identification of the Mass with Christ’s sacrifice a blasphemous perversion of the Eucharist. In place of the Mass, Protestant worship was centered on the Bible, to them the only road to faith in Christ, either read or presented in sermons.

More calls for reform came from Renaissance humanists, such as Erasmus. Humanists downplayed the role of rites and ceremonies in achieving salvation and criticised the superstitious veneration of relics.

Erasmus and John Colet emphasised a simple, personal piety and a return ad fones («back to the sources») of Christian faith. Colet’s commentaries on the Pauline epistles emphasized double predestination and the worthlessness of human works.

Anne Boleyn’s own religious views were shaped by French humanists such as Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples, whose 1512 commentaries on Paul’s epistles stated that human works were irrelevant to salvation five years before Luther publiched the same views.

Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples was a French theologian and humanist. He was a precursor of the Protestant movement in France, and a friend of Erasmus. He anticipated some ideas that were important to the Protestant Reformation.

Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples remained a Roman Catholic throughout his life, and sought to reform the Church without seperating from it. Several of his books were condemned as heretical, and he spent some time in exile. He was, however, a favorite of the king of France, Francis I, and enjoyed his protection.

Christian, Culture, German, Germany, History
Picture: Martin Luther (Protestant)

By the early 1520’s, the views of German reformer Martin Luther were known and disputed in England. The main plank of Luther’s theology was justification by faith alone rather than by good works. In this view, only faith, itself a gift from God, can secure the grace of God.

Justfication by faith alone threatened the whole basis of the Roman Catholic penitential system with its doctrine of purgatory, prayer for the death, indulgences, and the sacrifice character of the Mass.

Early Protestans portrayed Catholic practices such as confession to priests, clerical celibacy, and requirements to fast and kepp vows as burdensome and spiritually oppressive. Not only did purgatory lack any biblical basis according to Protestants, but the clergy were accused of using fear of purgatory to makke money from prayers and masses.

Catholics countered that justification by faith alone was a «licence to sin».

English Catholicism was strong and popular in the early 1500’s, and those who held Protestant sympathies would remain a religious minority until political events intervened. Protestant ideas were popular among some parts of the English population, especially among academics and merchants with connections to continental Europe.

Martin Luther was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a ceminal figure in the protestant Reformation. Another word is the European Reformation, and it was a movement within Western Christianity in the sixteenth-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Roman Catholic Church and papal authority in particuar.

It started with Luther’s Ninety-five Thesis in 1517. About 500 years ago. There was no schism between the Catholic Church and the nascent Luther until the 1521 Edict of Worms. The edict condemned Luther and officially banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or prpagating his ideas.

The end of the Reformation era is disputed: it could be considered to end with the enactment of the confessions of faith which began the Age of Orthodoxy.

Other suggested ending years relate to the Counter-Reformation, the Peace of Westphalia, or that it never ende since there are still Protesters today.

Those who identify with Luther`s wider teachings, are called Lutherans, though Luther insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ.

In two of his later works, Martin Luther expressed antagonistic, violent views toward Jews, and called for the burning of their synagogues and their deaths. His rhetoric was not directed at Jews alone, but also towards Roman Catholics, Anabaptists, and nontrinitarian Christians.

Luther was the most widely read author of his generation, and within Germany he acquired the status of a prophet. According to the prevailing opinion among historians, his anti-Jewish rhetoric contributed significantly to the development of antisemitism in Germany, and in the 1930’s and 1940’s provided an «ideal underpinning» for the Nazis’ attacks on Jews.

Reinhold Lewin writes that anybody who «wrote against the Jews for whatever reason believed he had the right to justify himself by triumphantly referring to Luther.»

According to Michael, just about every anti-Jewish book printed in the Third Reich contained references to and quotations from Luther.

Fascism, Nazi, Swastika, Symbol, Germany
Picture: Books printed in the Third Reich contained references to and quotations from Martin Luther

The leading member of the Nazi Party of Germany, Heinrich Himmler was one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and a main architect of the Holocaust. He formed the Einsatzgruppen and built extermination camps.

Himmler directed the killing of some six million Jews, between 200,000 and 500,000 Romani people, and other victims. The total number of civilians killed by the Nazi regime is estimated at eleven to fourteen million people Most of them Polish and Soviet citizens.

Heinrich Himmler (albeit never a Lutheran, having been brought up Catholic) wrote admiringly of his writing and sermons on the Jews in 1940. Professor Richard Geary noted, based on his research, that the Nazi Party received disproportionately more votes from Protestants than Catholic areas of Germany.

Chruch historian Martin Brecht said; «There is a world of difference between his belief in salvation and a racial ideology. Neverthless, his misguided agitation had the evil result that Luther fatefully became one of the «church fathers» of anti-semitism and thus provided material for the modern hatred of the Jews, cloaking it with the authority of the Reformer.»

Luther saw the Turks as a scourgge sent by God to punish Christians, as agents of the Biblical apocalypse that would destroy the Antichrist, whom Luther believed to be the papacy, and the Roman Church.

He went on to produce several critical pamphlets on Islam, which he called «Mohammedanism» or «the Turk». Though Luther saw the Muslim faith as a tool of the devil, he was indifferent to its practice: «Let the Turk believe and live as he will, just as one lets the papacy and others false Christians live».

Henry VIII broke England`s ties with the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church hundreds of year ago and said goodbye. Church taxes were paid straight to Rome, but not anymore. The Pope had the final word in the appointment of bishops, but that also came to an end. So is it today. The UK will no longer pay to the EU, and the EU has nothing they can say.

But they didn`t say goodbye to Europe, and so is it today. Prime Minister Boris Johnson and the United Kingdom is leaving the club European Union, but they are still a part of Europe.

The UK isn`t leaving Europe but a trading club that provides several non-rival but excludable goods to its members. Now, they want free trade and to be a member of another club like EU. We can assume the United States is on top of that list.

This is the end of the relationship with EU, but it is also the beginning of a new era for those who are building Europe. The UK is leaving the EU because EU is the problem. Not the UK. Therefore, the European Union must change.

The old European model is dead. So is the globalisation as we know it. It`s tragic for those in charge of building Europe not to see that this is a great opportunity to build a new one.

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