People in the West like to think that democracy in the West is much better than autocracy in Russia and China. But, what if China`s «one rule» party, the CCP (China Communist Party) is a better solution than the democratic mess (according to Vladimir Putin) in the West?
Democracy is one of mankind`s greatest achievements. But, for democracy to thrive and grow it must also adapt. We need to know what a democracy is.
The word democracy comes from the Greek words «demos», meaning people, and «Kratos» meaning power, so democracy can be thought of as «power of the people». A way of governing which depends on the will of the people.
It is a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives. A state governed under a system of democracy.
People in the West vote for their president, political parties, politicians, and prime ministers. In other words: a democratic process. But what about China? They are ruled by one party, and that is CCP. China`s Communist Party. Is it a democracy?
The answer is yes. But it`s more sophisticated than we like to think. People in China call it «Whole-process people`s democracy, which is a Chinese Communist Party (CCP) political concept describing the people`s participation in, and relationship to, governance under socialism with Chinese characteristics.
The term «whole-process democracy» was used to describe existing governance practices such as Chinese experiments with democratic elements in the legislative process and in local government activities.
CCP general secretary Xi Jinping first used the term publicly on November 2, 2019, while visiting Shanghai, and he stated:
«China`s people`s democracy is a type of whole-process democracy» in which legislation is enacted «after going through procedures and democratic deliberations to ensure that decision-making is sound and democratic.»
On July 1, 2021, Xi incorporated the word «people`s» into the concept during his speech at the 100th Anniversary of the Chinese Communist Party, coining the concept’s current name «whole-process people`s democracy.»
Xi tied the concept to «common prosperity.»
The addition of «people`s to the concept emphasizes the Maoist practice of the mass line.
Xi describes four components of whole-process people`s democracy, expressed as pairs relationships:
- Process democracy and achievements democracy
- Procedural democracy and substantive democracy
- Direct democracy and indirect democracy
- People`s democracy and the will of the state
According to Xi, this results in «real and effective socialist democracy.»
The concept`s emphasis on «whole-process» is intended to further distinguish the CCP approach to democracy from the procedural qualities of liberal democracy. It includes primarily consequentialist criteria for evaluating claims of democracy`s success. In this view, the most important criterion is whether democracy can «solve the people`s real problems,» while a system in which «the people are awakened only for voting» is not truly democratic.
Liberal democracy or Western democracy is the combination of a liberal political ideology that operates under a representative democratic form of government. It is characterized by-elections between multiple distinct political parties, a separation of powers into different branches of government, the rule of law in everyday life as part of an open society, a market economy with private property, and the equal protection of human rights, civil rights, civil liberties, and political freedoms for all people.
To define the system in practice, liberal democracies often draw upon a constitution, either codified or uncodified, to delineate the powers of government and enshrine the social contract.
Whole-process people`s democracy also serves as a political tool to both defend the Chinese government`s governance practices and criticize liberal democracy.
In the CCP`s view, whole-process people`s democracy is «more extensive, more genuine, and more effective» than American democracy.
The CCP uses the concept of whole-process people`s democracy as a means to participate in global discourses on democracy, seeking to deflect criticism and improve its foreign relations. This ties into the government`s larger efforts to promote its global leadership.
In that regard, the Chinese government`s 2021 white paper China: «A Democracy that Works» emphasizes the whole-process people`s democracy perspective in an effort to demonstrate the country`s «institutional self-confidence.»
The white paper argues that the whole-process people`s democracy is the impetus behind China`s development and growth.
Qin Gang is a Chinese diplomat and politician, and he stated this. «Isn`t it obvious that both China`s people-center philosophy and President Lincoln`s «of the people, by the people, for the people», are for the sake of the people? Shall we understand China`s socialist whole-process democracy as this: from the people to the people, with the people, for the people?»
China practices the whole-process people`s democracy, which not only means that people engage in democratic elections, but they`re also involved in consultations, decision-making, management, and oversight.
According to CCP, people`s democracy is the lifeblood of socialism, and it is integral to China`s efforts to build a modern socialist country in all respects.
If we compare Chinese Democracy with American Democracy or Western Democracy, the key difference is that China focuses far more on substantial democracy. Western Democracy places more emphasis on procedural democracy. A Democracy in the West is equivalent to «one person, one vote, universal suffrage, and a multi-party system.»
China`s democracy focuses far more on the purpose and objectives of democracy. Especially good governance, and what they can deliver to the people.
Whole-process democracy encourages the expansion of democratic channels, and diversifies the forms of democracy, so as to ensure that people can participate in the management of State, economic, cultural, and social affairs.
It also ensures that people`s congresses at all levels are formed through democratic elections, and guarantees that people`s congresses and their standing committees lawfully exercise the powers of enacting laws, conducting oversight, making decisions, appointing, and removing officials.
It improves the working mechanisms for drawing on public opinion and pulling the wisdom of the people. And these are not only words. When Chinese leaders say something, they mean it and take action to turn that into reality.
The Chinese people`s political consultative conference (CPPCC), is China`s highest advisory body and plays a vital role in China`s consultative democracy. It encourages active participation in the deliberation, and administration of state affairs, promoting the democratic, and scientific decision-making process of the party, and the state.
The CPCC has more than 3,200 organizations at four administrative levels. National, provincial, city, and country, with more than 600,000 CPPCC members from 34 areas, including 8 other political parties, and representatives from Science and technology, literature and art, economics, sports, religion, and other areas.
According to Chair Professor at Soochow University, Victor Gao Zhikai, few people in Western countries want to acknowledge that the Communist Party of China is not the only political party at all. In addition to the CPC, there are 8 other democratic parties;
- The Communist Party of China
- The Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang
- The China Democratic League
- The China Democratic National Constitution Association
- The China Association for Promoting Democracy
- The Chinese Peasants and Workers Democratic Party
- The China Zhi Gong Party
- The Jiu San Society
- The Taiwan Democratic Self-government League
In addition to this, there is a large Chamber of Commerce, which caters to business owners, private business owners, etc, and on top of that, there is a larger group of people called people without political affiliations.
This is the only way China has achieved such explosive productivity, efficiency, and economic, and political transformation over a short period of only about 43 years.
The legislative information offices not only promote China`s rule of law, but also practice whole-process people`s democracy by listening to the public and gathering the wisdom of the people for efficient, and high-quality National legislation.
The small grassroots legislative information office has become a significant democratic platform.
It`s all a part of a Chinese evolution. In November 1931, before the People`s Republic of China was established, the first national people`s Congress of the Soviet Republic of China was held in Zhangshi province.
In caves along the northern Shanxi Plateau, they used soybeans to cast their votes to elect the cadres. In September 1954, the first session of the first national people`s Congress was held. Marking the official establishment of the people`s Congress system as the fundamental political system in China.
After decades of practice, and exploration, China has been continually improving the people`s Congress system. People accessing their voting rights is an important manifestation of people being the masters of the country, which is the essence of democracy.
Among the nearly 3,000 deputies to the 14th NPC, 16,69% are workers and farmers. Besides the Communist Party, there are 8 other political parties that all have representation in the NPC. There are also a sizable proportion of delegates without any stated political affiliation. The 55 ethnic minorities hold 14,85% of the NPC seats.
For many people in the West, democracy means the right for each person to vote for their leaders. This is basically why they reject the idea that China has a democracy. But what people in the West don’t understand is that Chinese people are deeply involved in the elections of leaders of various levels.
Millions of urban and rural citizens do in fact directly vote for the representatives who govern their daily lives, who then make decisions that accurately reflect the needs, and desires of the people from the most fundamental level.
It`s normal for more than 90% of Chinese voters to turn out in the village, and Community elections all across China, which is much higher than in most Western democracies.
There are now over 2,7 million deputies in the people`s Congress across the country. More than 1 million registered voters have participated in county, and Township level elections.
The ultimate goal of elections is to choose the virtuous, and the capable who can solve today`s most urgent problems, and lead the country toward development.
China`s political system guarantees the rights of its people to elect their representatives, but more importantly, it guarantees that those representatives will be held accountable to the people.
The CPC leadership regards democratic supervision by the people as one of the highest priorities. Article 3 of the Constitution of the people`s Republic of China states:
«All administrative, judicial, and procuratorial organs of the state are created by the people`s congress to which they are responsible, and under whose supervision they operate.»
Democratic supervision refers to consultative supervision carried out by means of opinions, suggestions, and criticism. China has implemented several channels of democratic supervision. Today, democratic supervision is part of everyone`s daily life. People can monitor, and supervise how authorities exercise power at any place, and at any time through many kinds of democratic channels, and platforms.
China has a 1,2,3,4,5 citizen hotline service center, and that has been going on since 1987. When you call 1,2,3,4,5 to file a complaint, an operator will put you through to the right department to talk to. In 2019, the hotline was upgraded with time-sensitive feedback services.
In 2021, the mechanism was further improved and upgraded. They selected the most common issues that people called about that were hard to solve. They dedicated special task forces to focus on these issues.
About 350 cities have these hotlines, and they provide first-hand information about public opinions and concerns that City officials could hardly get in other ways.
Since the founding of New China, people have expressed their opinions on state affairs, both large and small, and party leadership has been relentlessly exploring appropriate, convenient, and diversified forms of supervision by the people.
Satisfying the public need for information, and the need to speak out is no easy task for a country of 1,4 billion people. Undeterred by this daunting task, the country`s leadership has emphasized democratic supervision throughout the whole process of performing duties.
The only litmus test of a democracy is whether it can generate real benefits. Making the country a better place to live, and making the lives of its people better.
Democracy has always been cherished by China, and its people, and it will continue to evolve in China with its own Chinese characteristics. China has lifted nearly 99 million out of poverty. It has built the world`s largest social security system, and health care system, covering more than 1,3 billion people. More than 10 million jobs have been created each year for 15 consecutive years.
China`s success is caused by one major thing: capitalism. It doesn`t matter what system you have if you don`t earn money. Even the Soviets would have succeeded if they earned money. The editor’s opinion is that the difference between democracy, autocracy, or dictatorship is very tiny. It`s all about money. It`s money that matters. Money comes first.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and may not reflect those of Shinybull.com. The author has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of the information provided; however, neither Shinybull.com nor the author can guarantee such accuracy. This article is strictly for informational purposes only. It is not a solicitation to make any exchange in precious metal products, commodities, securities, or other financial instruments. Shinybull.com and the author of this article do not accept culpability for losses and/ or damages arising from the use of this publication.