Tag Archives: Julius Caesar

A nation can survive its fools, and even the ambitious, but it cannot survive  treason from within

Marcus Tullius Cicero is considered one of Rome`s greatest orators and prose stylists. He was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC. According to Michael Grant, “the influence of Cicero upon the history of European literature and ideas greatly exceeds that of any other prose writer in any language.”

His works rank among the most influential in European culture, and today still constitute one of the most important bodies of primary material for the writing and revision of Roman history, especially the last days of Roman Republic.

Cicero believed his political career was his most important achievement. It was during his consulship that the second Catilinarian conspiracy attempted to overthrow the government through an attack on the city by outside forces, and Cicero suppressed the revolt by summarily and controversially executed five conspirators.

During the chaotic latter half of the 1st century BC marked by civil wars and Julius Caesar, Cicero championed a return to the traditional republican government. Living in Rome at that time gave Cicero an idea of how the real traitor act. Cicero said:

“A nation can survive its fools, and even the ambitious, but it cannot survive treason from within. An enemy at the gates is less formidable, for he is known and carries his banner openly. But the traitor moves amongst those within the gate freely, his sly whispers rustling through all the alleys, heard in the very halls of government itself.

For the traitor appears not a traitor; he speaks in accents familiar to his victims, and he wears their face and their arguments, he appeals to the baseness that lies deep in the heart of all men. He rots the soul of a nation, he works secretly and unknown in the night to undermine the pillars of the city, he infects the body politic so that it can no longe resist. A murderer is less to fear.”

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and may not reflect those of Shiny bull. The author has made every effort to ensure accuracy of information provided; however, neither Shiny bull nor the author can guarantee such accuracy. This article is strictly for informational purposes only. It is not a solicitation to make any exchange in precious metal products, commodities, securities or other financial instruments. Shiny bull and the author of this article do not accept culpability for losses and/ or damages arising from the use of this publication.

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The Ides of March and the European Union

Dont forget March 15, and what happened 44 BC. The founder of the Roman Republic, Julius Caesar was assassinated and killed by members of the Roman Senate. It is the worlds most famous political murders.

The problem was that they didn`t know what to do after Caesars death, so they went from a republican system of government and became an empire. This is actual today. The democracy is under attack.

 

 

It should be understood that the Optimate and the Populare were not political parties in conflict with each other but, rather, political ideologies which many people shifted toward and from, regardless of class in society.

Caesar was assassinated by a group of rebellious senators, and a new civil war broke out. The constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored, and the Roman Empire began. Rome finally became an empire at the end of the 1th century BC.

British historian Edward Gibbon argued in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire» (1776) that the Romans had become decadent, they had lost civic virtue.

Glen W. Bowersock has remarked; “We have been obsessed with the fall: it has been valued as an archetype for every perceived decline, and, hence, as a symbol for our own fears.” It remains one of the greatest historical questions, and has a tradition rich in scholarly interest.

Europe has since the fall of Rome been, not only Euro Zone, but Danger Zone. Are you able to count all the wars in Europe since the fall of Rome? I wrote about the Revolution of 1848 on May 6th last year. We now see many similarities in Europe today.

The Revolution of 1848 was also known as the Spring of Nations or Springtime of the Peoples. It was a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history.

The revolution was essentially democratic in nature, with the aim of removing the old feudal structure and creating independent national states. Over 50 countries were affected, and important factors were widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership and the upspring of nationalism to name a few.

Now, it is 2017, and many of the same things going on. Political turmoil, Populism and Nationalism.

Britain voted to leave the European Union last summer, and Netherland can be the next country to follow. But how?

The blond populist Geert Wilders must win the election in Netherland. He is the anti-Islam leader of the Dutch far-right Party for Freedom (PVV) and he is riding high on a wave of populism. Geert Wilders has pledged to close the Netherlands’ borders, shut down mosques and leave the euro and EU if he gets into power.

Wilder`s problem is that no one is willing to form a coalition with him, and that will result in a political mess after the election. There are very few, if any parties, that will go into Parliament with him.

A triumph for Wilders would emboden French voters to back far-right Presidential candidate Marine Le Penn in elections beginning next month. Le Penn will also withdraw France from the Eurozone, and that would be a big threat to the euro.

Latest polls tell us that Mark Rutte will win and Wilders will get about 19 out of 150 seats in Netherland. In France, Le Penn leads the first poll, but she is widely expected to lose in the second round.

We are living in a critical moment right now.

 

 

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and may not reflect those of Shiny bull. The author has made every effort to ensure accuracy of information provided; however, neither Shiny bull nor the author can guarantee such accuracy. This article is strictly for informational purposes only. It is not a solicitation to make any exchange in precious metal products, commodities, securities or other financial instruments. Shiny bull and the author of this article do not accept culpability for losses and/ or damages arising from the use of this publication.

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The 400th anniversary of William Shakespare`s death

Tomorrow, it is 400 years since William Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616. He is interesting because he is considered to be the greatest writer in the English language and the world`s pre-eminent dramatist.

He was an English poet, playwright, and actor, and he is often called England`s national poet, and the «Bard of Avon». I wrote about Julius Caesar on March 15 earlier this year, and this is a date to remember thanks to William Shakespeare.

«Beware the ides of March», William Shakespeare said, and that is why people around the world always remember the assassination on Julius Caesar on March 15. This year, the 400th anniversary of the playwright`s death, celebrations will commence in the United Kingdom and across the world to honour Shakespeare and his work.

 

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Shakespeare was born in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, in 1564. He wrote at least 37 plays and collaborated on several more. His 17 comedies include A Midsummer Nights Dream and The Merry Wives of Windsor. Among his 10 plays are Henry V and Richard III. The most famous among his 10 tragedies are Hamlet, Othello, and King Lear. Shakespeares best-known poems are The Sonnets, first published in 1609.

Shakespeare produced most of his work between 1589 and 1613, and his early plays were primarily comedians and histories, and these are regarded as some of the best work ever produced in these genres.

He then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest works in the English language.

In the 20th and 21th centuries, his works have been repeatedly adopted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance. His plays remain highly popular, and are constantly studied, performed, and reinterpreted in diverse cultural and political contexts throughout the world.

Shakespeare signed his last will and testament on 25 March 1616, the following day his new son-in-law, Thomas Quiney was found guilty of fathering an illegitimate son by Margaret Wheeler, who had died during childbirth.

Thomas was ordered by the church court to do public penance, which would have caused much shame and embarrassment for the Shakespeare family. Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616, at the age of 52.

He died within a month of signing his will, a document which he begins by describing himself as being in «perfect health».

No extant contemporary source explains how or why he died.

Shakespeare was buried in the chancel of the Holy Trinity Church two days after his death. The epitaph carved into the stone slab covering his grave includes a curse against moving his bones, which was carefully avoided during restoration of the church in 2008:

Good frend for Iesvs sake forbeare,
To digg the dvst encloased heare.
Bleste be  man  spares thes stones,
And cvrst be he  moves my bones.

(Modern spelling: Good friend, for Jusus’ sake forbear,/ To dig the dust enclosed here. / Blessed be the man who spares these stones,/ And cursed be he that moves my bones.)

 

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Sometimes before 1623, a funerary monument was erected in his memory on the north wall, with a half-effigy of him in the act of writing. Its plague compares him to Nestor, Socrates and Virgil. In 1623, in conjunction with the publication of the First Folio, the Droeshout engraving was published.

Shakespeare has been commemorated in many statues and memorials around the world, including funeral monuments in Southwark Cathedral and Poets’ Corner in Westminster Abbey.

Shakespear`s romantic Merchant of Venice, contains a portrayal of the vengeful Jewish moneylender Shylock, which reflects Elizabethan views but may appear derogatory to modern audiences.

After the lyrical Richard II, written almost entirely in verse, Shakespeare introduced prose comedy into the histories of the late 1590`s, Henry IV, parts 1, and Henry V. His characters become more complex and tender as he switches deftly between comic and serious scenes, prose and poetry, and achieves the narrative variety of his mature work.

This period begins and ends with two tragedies: Romeo and Juliet, the famous romantic tragedy of sexually charged adolescence, love, and death, and Julius Caesar (based on Sir Thomas Norths 1579 translation of Plutarchs Parallel Lives) which introduced a new kind of drama.

according to Shakespearean scholar James Shapiro, in Julius Caesar «the various strands of politics, character, inwardness, contemporary events, even Shakespeare`s own reflections on the act of writing, began to infuse each other.

Many critics belive that Shakespeares greatest tragedies represent the peak of his art. The titular hero of one of Shakespeares most famous tragedies, Hamlet, has probably been discussed more than any other Shakespearean character, especially for his famous soliloquy which begins «To be or not to be; that is the question».

Unlike the introverted Hamlet, whose fatal flaw is hesitation, the heroes, of the tragedies that followed, Othello and King Lear, are undone by hasty errors of judgement. The plot of Shakespear`s tragedies often hinge on such fatal errors or flows, which overturn order and destroy the hero and those he loves.

In Othello, the villain Iago stokes Othellos sexual jealousy to the point where he murders the innocent wife who loves him. In King Lear, the old king commits the tragic error of giving up his powers, initiating the events which lead to the torture and blinding of the Earl of Gloucester and the murder of Lears youngest daughter Cordelia.

 

mcbeth

 

In Macbeth, the shortest and most compressed of Shakespear`s tragedies, uncontrollable ambition incites Macbeth and his wife, Lady Macbeth, to murder the rightful king and usurp the throne, until their own guilt destroys them in turn.

In this play, Shakespeare adds a supernatural element to the tragic structure.

Shakespeare was not revered in his lifetime, but he received a large amount of praise. In 1598, the cleric and author Francis Meres singled him out from a group of English writers as «the most excellent» in both comedy and tragedy.

By 1800, Shakespeare was firmly enshrined as the national poet. In the 18th and 19th centuried, his reputation also spread abroad. Among those who championed him were writers like Voltaire, Goethe, Stendhal and Victor Hugo.

 

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Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and may not reflect those of Shiny bull. The author has made every effort to ensure accuracy of information provided; however, neither Shiny bull nor the author can guarantee such accuracy. This article is strictly for informational purposes only. It is not a solicitation to make any exchange in precious metal products, commodities, securities or other financial instruments. Shiny bull and the author of this article do not accept culpability for losses and/ or damages arising from the use of this publication.

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The assassination of Julius Caesar and “the ides of March”

Today, On March 15, 44 BC, the founder of the Roman Republic and the rise of Roman Empire, Julius Caesar was assassinated and killed by members of the Roman Senate. The world`s most famous political murders.

Caesars second heir were among the assassins. There were totally as many as sixty assassins. Caesar was stabbed twenty-three times and died at the base of Pompeys statue, but the assassins made a big mistake.

They didnt know what to do after Caesars death.

 

Caesar

 

They didnt have a plan, so they mistakenly allowed Marcus Antonius (Mark Antonio), who was Caesars cousin and right-hand man, to live. Caesar`s death is a key moment in history. It all resulted in a cycle of civil wars, which resulted in one of the most significant constitutional transformations in history.

They went from a republican system of government and became an empire. Supporters of the Republic point to how it threw off the tyrannical king Tarquin the Proud and introduced elements of democracy.

It became popular also in Italy, France, Spain, Greece, Macedonia, Syria, Libya, Egypt, Turkey and Tunisia.

Julius Caesar was born 12 July 100 BCE. His father was a Praetor who governed the province of Asia and his mother was of noble birth. Both held to the popular ideology of Rome which favored democratization of government and more rights for the lower class as opposed to the optimates factions` claim of the superiority of the nobility and tradition Roman values which favored the upper classes.

It should be understood that the Optimate and the Populare were not political parties in conflict with each other but, rather, political ideologies which many people shifted toward and from, regardless of class in society.

The concept of appealing to the people for support, rather than seeking approval from the Roman Senate or the other Patricians, would work well for Caesar later in life.

 

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Gaius Julius Caesar was Roman statesman, general, and notable author of Latin Prose. Caesar was extremely talented in many ways which is very unusual. He was a military colossus, compelling writer, original thinker, magnetic orator, dynamic reformer and magnanimous politician.

He was also narcissistic, manipulative, egotistical, sexual predatory, shockingly savage in war even by Roman standards, and monomaniacal obsessed with acquiring absolute power for himself. Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history.

Thanks to William Shakespeare, «Beware the ides of March» means that people always remember March 15.

In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative ruling class within the Roman Senate.

Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Romes territory to the English Channel and Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain.

These achievement granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome.

Caesar refuse the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman Italy under arms. Civil war resulted, and Caesar`s victory in the war put him in an unrivaled position of power and influence.

After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian Calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed «dictator in perpetuity», giving him additional authority.

 

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But underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of rebellious senators.

A new civil war broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesar`s adoped heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began.

Rome finally became an empire at the end of the 1st century BC, under Augustus and his authoritarian successors. The Roman Empire had its centre in the Mediterranean, controlling all the countries on its shores; the northern border was marked by the Rhine and Danube rivers.

The Empire reached its maximum expansion, controlling approximately 5,900,000 km2 of land surface, including Britain, Romania and parts of Mesopotamia, Pax Romana, a period of peace, civilisation and an efficient centralised government in the subject territories ended in the 3rd century, when a series of civil wars undermined Rome`s economic and social strength.

The Roman Empire had been repeatedly attacked by invading armies from Northern Europe and in 476, Rome finally fell.

British historian Edward Gibbon argued in «The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire» (1776) that the Romans had become decadent, they had lost civic virtue.

Glen W. Bowersock has remarked, «we have been obsessed with the fall: it has been valued as an archetype for every perceived decline, and, hence, as a symbol for our own fears.» It remains one of the greatest historical questions, and has a tradition rich in scholarly interest.

Over time many theories have been proposed on why the Empire fell, or whether indeed it fell at all.

I love The United States, but what I love is the Republic. Not the Empire. Some empires are planned, some are not, and empires created on purpose, such as Napoleonic France and Nazi Germany, have rarely lasted.

After World War II (1945), The United States became an empire. All Empire`s are a part of an evolution.

What`s the next step?

 

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Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and may not reflect those of Shiny bull. The author has made every effort to ensure accuracy of information provided; however, neither Shiny bull nor the author can guarantee such accuracy. This article is strictly for informational purposes only. It is not a solicitation to make any exchange in precious metal products, commodities, securities or other financial instruments. Shiny bull and the author of this article do not accept culpability for losses and/ or damages arising from the use of this publication.

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