Tag Archives: Financial crisis

The wide spread between the 2-year note and the 10-year note is around 10 basis points which is the flattest since 2007

The stock marked plummeted on Tuesday with Nasdaq down near 4 percent. This is scary for many investors around the world. More scary is a quick look at the 2-year note that dropped more than 26 percent.

The wide spread between the 2-year note and the 10-year note is around 10 basis points which is the flattest since 2007. Bond prices move in the opposite direction of yields, and the spread between the 3-year note and the 5-year note have already inverted. 1-year note and 10-year isn`t near at all.

In a normal situation, the short-term bills yields less than the long-term bills, which means that investors expect a lower return when their money is tied up for a shorter period like 1,2 or 3-year notes. Investors require a higher yield to give them more return on a long-term investment.

If investors have little confidence in the near-term economy, the yield curve inverts. Investors demand more yield for a short-term investment than for a long-term one. They belive the near-term as riskier than the long-term.

In a situation like that, investors would prefer to buy long-term bonds and tie up their money for years in the long run even though they receive lower yields. The reason why investors do that is because they believe the economy is getting worse in the near-term.

An inverted yield curve is most worrying when it occurs with Treasury yields and that`s when yields on short-term Treasury bills, notes and bonds are higher than long-term yields. During healthy economic growth, the yield on a 30-year bond will be three pints higher than the yield on a three-month bill.

The reason why the short-term bill decline and makes an inverted yield curve is that investors believe they will make more by holding onto a longer-term bill than a short one. They think they need to reinvest in a short-term bill a few months any way.

If investors think that the economy is slowing and the recession is coming, they expect the value of the short-term bills to plunge in a short period of time. When the economy slows down, the FED lowers the Fed funds rate, and the short-term Treasury bill yields track the fed funds rate.

It is when the demand for long-term bills goes up that the demand for the short-terms bills goes down. Then the yield for short-terms bills goes up while the yield for the long-term bills goes down, and that`s whats happening now.

For example,when the yield on short-term Treasury’s rises higher than the yield on long-term bonds is where the yield curve inverts. The Treasury yield curve inverted for the first time since the recession. The 3-year note was higher than the 5-year note. Investors are saying that the economy is better in five years than in three years.

President Trump is disappointed when it comes to the FED`s descision to raise the rates which is going to raise to about 3,5 percent in 2020. Mr Trump and investors are worried it could trigger an economic slowdown in three years if the rates is too high.

This small inversion is probably temporary, but if it continues to grow bigger, we can be thrown into a recession. The current fed funds rate determines the outlook of the U.S economy, and people should never ignore an inverted yield curve. Just take a look at the history.

In June 2007, the yield curve was on the brink and went back and forth, between inverted and flat yield curve. The Fed reacted too late and lowered the fed funds rate ten times until it reached zero by the end of 2008.

The yield curve was no longer inverted but it was too late, and we know the rest of the story; The economy went into the worst recession since the Great Depression. This is just a reminder.

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and may not reflect those of Shiny bull. The author has made every effort to ensure accuracy of information provided; however, neither Shiny bull nor the author can guarantee such accuracy. This article is strictly for informational purposes only. It is not a solicitation to make any exchange in precious metal products, commodities, securities or other financial instruments. Shiny bull and the author of this article do not accept culpability for losses and/ or damages arising from the use of this publication.

 

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If the Fed`s neutral rate is as low as they estimate or even lower, they will be glad to have their unconventional tools in their toolkit

President Trump will announce the next Fed Chair very soon. This is happening at a time were Mr Trump is planning a new tax reform. At a time were Mr Trump want to spend more money on infrastructure.

Mr Trump attacked Ms Yellen on the campaign trail and accused her for holding the rates too low, but he has halted any criticism of Yellen and the Fed since his inauguration. Now, Mr Trump say he like Ms Yellen and refuse to close down the possibility of reappointing her.

 

Ms Yellens term as a Fed Chair is about to end and the term is up for renewal early next year, but Yellens term as a governor on the Federal Reserve extends until January 2024.

So, if Mr Trump wants to “fire” Ms Yellen as a Fed Chair, she will still stay on the board even is Mr Trump dont want her to win the next term as a Fed Chair.

John Taylor and Jay Powell are among two of the other candidates on Mr Trumps shortlist. Anyway, whats interesting is their policy on interest rates.

Fed Chair Janet Yellen wrote an article about A Challenging Decade and a Question for the Future on the Fed`s own website. Her headline was a key question for the future. As the financial crisis and Great Recession fade into the past and the stance of monetary policy gradually returns to normal, a natural question concerns the possible future role of the unconventional policy tools we deployed after the onset of the crisis, Ms Yellen said.

My colleagues on the FOMC and I belive that, whenever possible, influencing short-term interest rates by targeting the federal funds rate should be our primary tool. As I have already noted, we have a long track record using this tool to pursue our statutory goals. In contrast, we have much more limited experience with using our securities holdings for that purpose.

Where does this assessment leave our unconventional policy tools? I belive their deployment should be considered again if our conventional tool reaches its limit, that is, when the federal funds rate has reached its effective lower bound and the U.S economy still needs further monetary policy accommodation.

Does this mean that it will take another Great Recession for our unconventional tools to be used again? Not necessarily. Recent studies suggest that the neutral level of the federal funds rate appears to be much lower than it was in previous decades.

Indeed, most FOMC participants now assess the longer-run value of the neutral Federal funds rate as only 2-3/4 percent or so, compared with around 4-1/4 percent just a few years ago. With a low neutral federal funds rate, there will typically be less scope for the FOMC to reduce short-term interest rates in response to an economic downturn, raising the possibility that we may need to resort again to enhanced forward rate guidance and asset purchases to provide needed accommodation.

Of course, substantial uncertainty surrounds any estimates of the neutral level of short-term interest rates. In this regard, there is an important asymmetry to consider. If the neutral rate turns out to be significantly higher than we currently estimate, it is less likely that we will have to deploy our unconventional tools again.

In contrast, if the neutral rate is as low as we estimate or even lower, we will be glad to have our unconventional tools in our toolkit.

The bottom line is that we must recognize that our unconventional tools might have to be used again.

If we are indeed living in a low-neutral-rate world, a significantly less severe economic downturn that the Great Recession might be sufficient to drive short-term interest rates back to their effective lower bound.

Ms Yellen concluded with this summary: As a result of the Great Recession, the Federal Reserve has confronted two key challenges over the past several years: One, the FOMC had to provide additional policy accommodation after short-term interest rates reached their effective lower bound; and two, subsequently, as we made progress toward the achievement of our mandate, we had to start scaling back that accommodation in the presence of a vastly expanded Federal Reserve balance sheet.

Ms Yellen highlighted two points about the FOMC`s experience with those challenges. First, the monetary policy tools that the Federal Reserve deployed in the immediate aftermath of the crisis – explicit forward rate guidance, large-scale asset purchases, and the payment of interest on excess reserves have helped us overcome these challenges.

Second, in light of evidence suggesting that the neutral level of short-term interest rates is significantly lower than it was in previous decades, the likelihood that future monetary policymakers will have to confront those two challenges again is uncomfortably high.

For this reason, we must keep our in conventional policy tools ready to be deployed again should short-term interest rates return to their effective lower bound.

things

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and may not reflect those of Shiny bull. The author has made every effort to ensure accuracy of information provided; however, neither Shiny bull nor the author can guarantee such accuracy. This article is strictly for informational purposes only. It is not a solicitation to make any exchange in precious metal products, commodities, securities or other financial instruments. Shiny bull and the author of this article do not accept culpability for losses and/ or damages arising from the use of this publication.

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