# Tag Archives: Value investing

## Price to book ratio (P/B)

Now and then I write about some stock tools, and today I will write about price to book ratio (P/B). Let`s say a stock price for company A is \$10 (1 million shares). This is called the market value. Market is often investors, analysts and newspapers. But this is often not the value of the business according to its “books” or financial value.

The companies book value is calculated from the balance sheet, and it is the difference between a company’s total assets and total liabilities. This is what we call the shareholders equity. Let`s say company A has total assets of \$50 million, and total liabilities is \$30 million. Then the value of the company is \$20 million.

If Company A sold the assets and paid the liabilities, the equity value, or the net worth of the business would be \$20 million. If the stock price was trading at \$10 (and they have 1 million shares), then you know that the company is undervalued. This is how it is so important to look at the P/B compared to the equity price.

Definition of price to book ratio: P/B is used to compare a stocks market value to its book value.

Value investors are searching for stocks that the market has passed by. What they are looking for is really HOT stocks. They simply look for companies that no one are paying much attention to at the beginning and that is often called penny stocks. Is is a strategy to hold the stocks for years until one day the market discovers the stocks on their screen and start to buy.

At this stage, value investors are looking for other indicators than earnings growth. What they are looking for is Price to book ratio (P/B). This measurement simply tells us the value the market places on the book value of the company.

A low P/B can indicate that the stock is undervalued, but it could also mean that it is something terribly wrong. Be aware that this ratio (like other ratios) varies from industry to industry. In addition; it tells you whether you are paying too much for what`s left in the company if it went bankrupt tomorrow.

Calculate like this:

P/B = Share Price / Book Value Per Share

The lower the P/B, the better the value. It is better to identify potential companies this way.

News today (all times are Eastern Times):

Core Durable Goods & Unemployment Claims at 8:30am,

Chicago PMI & Revised Consumer Confidence at 9:55am,

Crude Oil Inventories at 10:30am.

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and may not reflect those of Shiny bull. The author has made every effort to ensure accuracy of information provided; however, neither Shiny bull nor the author can guarantee such accuracy. This article is strictly for informational purposes only. It is not a solicitation to make any exchange in precious metal products, commodities, securities or other financial instruments. Shiny bull and the author of this article do not accept culpability for losses and/ or damages arising from the use of this publication.

Filed under Stock market, Stocks

## Price to earnings 1

I always look for values, and I tend to be an value investor. That`s why I have been written about Twitter and their IPO share price lately. That doesn`t mean I always look for a low price-to-earnings ratio stocks. I think that is a mistake many investors do when they are investing.

This approach has generated above the average returns over a long periode of time, but it is not the ideal solution to find the right stock. Twitter was trading down -2,33% yesterday, closing at a share price of 41,9. Value investors are selling at the moment. What is the value?

I look for the intrinsic value of all the assets in a company. The important thing is the cash flows that will be generated by that asset discounted back to the present moment at a rate that factors in opportunity cost and infation. You can measure the opportunity cost against the risk-free U.S Treasury.

Different companies deserve different valuations. That is how you understand the intrinsic value. It is difficult to try to figure out how to use this for individual stocks. It depends on the economics, the nature and what business the company are operating in.

You have many different businesses out there. You only need a computer to start a new web building company. Starting a new steel mill requires tens of thousands of dollars in startup capital. What a difference?

The web builder deserve a higher price to earnings multiple because the shareholders doesnt need to spend more money to maintain the property and other equipments. This is why intelligent investors distinguish between the net income figure and true and “economic” profit (Warren Buffet call it: “owner” earnings).

This represent the amount of cash they can spend on other investments by reinvesting it.

Reported net income is not the most important thing, but how many computers the owner can buy relative to his investment is more interesting.

The investors net worth is limited to the return on aquity generated by the underlying company. On the other side; you can hope for another “fool” to buy your share for a higher price or a great bull market, but that is very speculative and seems to be very risky.

As you can see, two different businesses might have identical earnings of \$10 million, but Company A may gererate about \$5 million and company B, \$20 million in “owner earnings”, which means company B can have a price-to-earnings ratio that is four times higher than company A yet still be trading at the same value.

News today: FED chairman Ben Bernanke speaks at 7pm.

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and may not reflect those of Shiny bull. The author has made every effort to ensure accuracy of information provided; however, neither Shiny bull nor the author can guarantee such accuracy. This article is strictly for informational purposes only. It is not a solicitation to make any exchange in precious metal products, commodities, securities or other financial instruments. Shiny bull and the author of this article do not accept culpability for losses and/ or damages arising from the use of this publication.