Tag Archives: Hitler

The Democratic world is backsliding, and people around the world are losing their freedom

People around the world are losing their freedom, and democracy is in decline all over the world for the 16th year in a row, according to a new report by Freedom House. The number of people living in societies that are considered free has declined by 25,7% as political freedoms have eroded.

Bad countries are getting worse, but over the last few years, we`ve also seen democracies getting worse, Amy Slipowitz, who is one of the authors of the report said.

Factors such as undermining the rule of law, attacking media freedom, perverting elections, and discrimination and mistreatment of migrants were internal issues impacting the functionality of existing democracies, the report found.

The US received a score of 2 out of 4 in the category of equal treatment of minority groups in light of its recent policies on asylum seekers. Only 25 countries improved in their freedom scores overall, and some of the most significant increases occurred in Côte d’Ivoire, Niger, Ecuador, and Honduras.

The decline is not reversing, but there are still signs that this can be reversed because «there are so many places where people are risking their lives to demand freedom.» The protests in Myanmar and Sudan are examples of how people fight for democracy to persist.

«I think despite these crackdowns and pushback, there is still a very strong demand for democracy,» Slipowitz says. «I do expect that it`ll continue because ultimately, people do have a desire to live freely. So I think the key will be how democracy`s proponents can support these people, and global collaboration is really key to this.»

The difference between communist China and the United States is that the United States is one nation under God. The communists in China don`t believe in religion and God, so people in China believe in communists.

«If we ever forget that we are One Nation Under God, then we will be a nation gone under,» Ronald Reagan once said. He also said that America is the moral force that defeated communism and all those who would put the human soul itself into bondage.

What would Ronald Reagan say today, as the Democratic world is backsliding, also known as autocratization, democratic decay, and de-democratization, which means a gradual decline in the quality of democracy and the opposite of democratization?

If unchecked, democratic backsliding results in the state losing its democratic qualities, becoming an autocracy or authoritarian regime. The democratic decline is caused by the state-led weakening of political institutions that sustain the democratic system, such as the peaceful transition of power or free and fair elections.

Although these political elements are assumed to lead to the onset of backsliding, other essential components of democracy such as infringements of individual rights, especially freedom of expression, question the health, efficiency, and sustainability of democratic systems over time.

Since 2001, there are more autocracies than democracies in the world, and as a result, the «third wave of autocratization» is accelerating and deepening. In addition, apart from the transition to autocratization, democratic backsliding may also lead to authoritarian regressions, revolutions, to hybrid regimes as they enter political «grey zones.»

During a national crisis, there are unique risks of democratic backsliding. It can occur when leaders impose autocratic rules during states of emergency that are either disproportionate to the severity of the crisis or remain in place after the situation has improved.

Democratic backsliding occurs when essential components of democracy are threatened, and examples of democratic backsliding include;

  • Free and fair elections are degraded;
  • Liberal rights of freedom of speech, press and association decline, impairing the ability of the political opposition to challenge the government, hold it to account, and propose alternatives to the current regime;
  • The rule of law (i.e., judicial and bureaucratic restraints on the government) is weakened, such as when the independence of the judiciary is threatened, or when civil service tenure protections are weakened or eliminated.
  • An over-emphasis on national security as response to acts of terrorism or perceived antogonists.

Democratic backsliding can occur in several common ways, and you can see it in many places on this planet even today. Backsliding is often led by democratically elected leaders, who use «incremental rather than revolutionary» tactics.

It is difficult to pinpoint a single specific moment at which a government is no longer democratic, given that this process of decline manifests «slowly, in barely visible steps». Ozan Varol uses the phrase stealth authoritarianism to describe the practice of an authoritarian leader (or a potential authoritarian leader) using «seemingly legitimate legal mechanisms for anti-democratic ends….. concealing anti-democratic practices under the mask of law.

Together with Juan Linz, Levitsky and Ziblatt developed and agreed upon their «litmus test», which includes what they believe to be the four key indicators of authoritarian behavior. These four factors are; rejection (or weak comment to) democratic rules of the game, denial of the legitimacy of political opponents, toleration or encouragement of violence, and readiness to curtail civil liberties of opponents, including media.

Varol describes the manipulation of libel laws, electoral laws, or «terrorism» laws as tools to target or discredit political opponents, and the employment of democratic rhetoric as a distraction from anti-democratic practices, as manifestations of stealth authoritarianism.

We can also see strategic harassment and manipulation during elections, and this form of democratic backsliding entails the impairment of free and fair elections through tactics such as blocking media access, disqualifying opposition leaders, or harassing opponents.

This form of backsliding is done in such a way that the elections do not appear to be rigged and rarely involve any apparent violations of the law, making it difficult for international election monitoring organizations to observe or criticize this misconduct.

For example, Hitler gave a speech to the Reichstag in support of the Enabling Act. The decline of the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany is one of the most infamous examples of democratic backsliding.

(The enabling Act of 1933, was a law that gave the German Cabinet, most importantly, the Chancellor, the power to make and enforce laws without the involvement of the Reichstag or Weimar President Paul von Hindenburg.)

Hitler persuaded Hindenburg to enact the Reichstag Fire Decree. The decree abolished most civil liberties including the right to speak, assemble, protest, and due process. Using the decree the Nazis declared a state of emergency and began to arrest, intimidate, and purge their political enemies.

By clearing the political arena of anyone willing to challenge him Hitler submitted a proposal to the Reichstag that would immediately grant all legislative powers to the cabinet. This would in effect allow Hitler`s government to act without concern for the constitution.

The world we live in today is very similar to the 30s, and the most important and serious issue is inequality. Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson have investigated the effect of income inequality on the democratic breakdown.

Studies of democratic collapse show that economic inequality is significantly higher in countries that eventually move towards a more authoritarian model.

In addition, political polarization, racism and nativism, and excessive executive power have alone or in combination provided the conditions for democratic backsliding.

The 2019 Annual Democracy Report of the V-dem Institute at the University of Gothenburg identified three challenges confronting global democracy:

  1. «Government manipulation of media, civil society, rule of law, and elections»,
  2. rising «toxic polarization», including «the division of society into distrustful, antagonistic camps», diminishing «respect for opponents, factual reasoning, and engagement with society» among political elites, and increasing use of hate speech by political leaders, and
  3. foreign disinformation campaigns, primarily digital.

Some countries move toward democracy, while other countries move away from democracy. Just take a look at the West and you will see it on the way to being a wild wild west. Man people are claiming that the United States is the last hope. Ronald Reagan said, «if we lose freedom here, there is no place to escape to. This is the last stand on Earth».

«Democracy is worth dying for because it`s the most deeply honorable form of government ever devised by man».

On August 23, 1984, Ronald Reagan said; «Without God, there is no virtue, because there`s no prompting of the conscience. Without God, we`re mired in the material, that flat world that tells us only what the senses perceive. Without God, there is a coarsening of society. And without God, democracy will not and cannot long endure. If we ever forget that we`re one nation under God, then we will be a nation gone under».

But the separation of church and state was never intended to separate public morality from public policy.

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and may not reflect those of Shinybull.com. The author has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of the information provided; however, neither Shinybull.com nor the author can guarantee such accuracy. This article is strictly for informational purposes only. It is not a solicitation to make any exchange in precious metal products, commodities, securities, or other financial instruments. Shinybull.com and the author of this article do not accept culpability for losses and/ or damages arising from the use of this publication.

Leave a comment

Filed under Politics

Vladimir Putin is “compelled by God” to invade Ukraine, and this is the beginning of the “end times”

I`m so fascinated by the times we are all living in at the moment. Mr. Trump took place in the Oval Office and people attacked him from day one. Why? He was a populist. He wanted to fix corruption at the highest level. He wanted to fix the establishment. But, that`s also why they attacked him.

But, take a look at President Zelenskyy. He is also a populist. He is anti-establishment, and he is working hard to fix corruption. That`s exactly the same agenda as Mr. Trump. But, people love him. The whole world is supporting him. Hmm…. that`s strange.

I have been watching Pastor Jimmy Evans for some time, and find it very fascinating that he is talking about «the end times.» In his book «The tipping point,» he is talking about the tumultuous times we are lining in.

From corrupt world politics to global pandemics to an unprecedented rebellion against God and His word. Humanity has reached a critical stage. Jimmy Evans has studied end times prophecy for more than 45 years and has taught it worldwide to millions of people.

He has examined biblical prophecies about the end times and points to their unmistakable parallels with today`s world. Pastor Evans makes a strong Biblical argument that we are in the last of the last days. The rapture of the Church literally could be any day. Jesus talked about it over 2000 years ago. He knew it was coming. He talked about a world of fear, and that`s what we are in right now. Mr. Evans can clearly see the signs and he sees that all these signs point to Israel.

President Zelenskyy is Jewish, but he is surrounded by neo-Nazis in Ukraine, which is a corrupt and rotten place on earth. President Vladimir Putin talked about the neo-Nazis in a speech earlier today, and what they are doing is to stop people in Ukraine to move out of the town. The neo-Nazis are using innocent people as shields.

Mr. Putin reaffirmed his claim that the Russian military was fighting «neo-Nazis», adding that some Ukrainians were also «fooled by nationalist propaganda».

In a call with French President Emmanuel Macron, Putin was so undaunted by international condemnation that an Elysee official bleakly concluded;» We expect that the worst is yet to come.»

Putin also said in the speech that the West is to blame for the conflict and «denied having bombarded Kyiv».

This is also in line with what Televangelist Pat Robertson says; «Putin`s march on Ukraine is the beginning of the «end times.»

Some people compare Putin to Hitler, but those who claim things like that don`t know what they are talking about. They are ridiculous. But, is he mad? Crazy?

Perhaps, Pat Robertson says, but God says; «I am going to put hooks in your jaws.»

Televangelist Pat Robertson is an old man, and he came out of his retirement to say Russia`s president Vladimir Putin was «compelled by God» to invade Ukraine. He also added the shocking claim that Mr. Putin`s attack on Ukraine was in preparation for a massive «end times» invasion of Israel.

The 91-year-old insisted this was all a part of an «end times» battle and that Mr. Putin was just following God`s plan.

Mr. Robertson said «People say that Putin`s out of his mind. Yes, maybe so. But at the same time, he`s being compelled by God. He went into Ukraine but that wasn`t his goal. His goal was to move against Israel, ultimately.»

The aging televangelist continued to say that Russia was using Ukraine as a «staging area» and God had put «hooks» in the Russian president`s «jaws» for a reason to draw him to his stage. I am gonna draw you into this…. whether you like it or not.,» he said.

Mr. Robertson claimed God had his conspiracy that was being implemented via Mr. Putin.

«All of those troops there are going to be coming against Israel in the latter days. And God says, «I am going to take care of it,» he said. He also told his viewers on The 700 Club on the Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN), to read the bible because it`s coming to pass.

This is also in line with what Mr. Trump said to Fox News. He said Ukraine is a Holocaust, but he didn`t blame Mr. Putin. Zelenskyy said in a speech today; «The end of the world has arrived.» He used words like «Apocalypse.» Ukrainian Holocaust survivors plead from bunkers for Vladimir Putin to stop the war. By the way, did you know that 60% of the Holocaust during WWII were Russians?

Mr. Robertson cited verses from the book of Ezekiel that note how nations will come together to rise up against Israel, suggesting that Ukraine is merely a «staging ground» for an eventual Armageddon battle.

«God is getting ready to do something amazing,» Mr. Robertson said. And that will be fulfilled.

Hold on to your hats folks. Big things will happen. Be prepared.

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and may not reflect those of Shinybull.com. The author has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of the information provided; however, neither Shinybull.com nor the author can guarantee such accuracy. This article is strictly for informational purposes only. It is not a solicitation to make any exchange in precious metal products, commodities, securities, or other financial instruments. Shinybull.com and the author of this article do not accept culpability for losses and/ or damages arising from the use of this publication.

1 Comment

Filed under Politics

Holocaust and the Eugenic movement

27 January marks the anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz-Birkenau, the largest Nazi death camp. Holocaust Memorial Day encourages remembrance in a world scarred by genocide. Six million Jews were murdered, alongside the millions of other people killed under Nazi persecution.

Everybody blames Hitler for all the things that happened during World War II. But, I`m not so sure that is the right thing to do. We see even today that many politicians, PMs, and Presidents are puppets. What if Hitler was a puppet too?

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

It is very clear to me that someone fed Hitler with a lot of information. That`s exactly what’s going on. We see the puppet on the scene, but not all those that are working behind the scenes. And what about all the people in Germany that voted for him?

We all know that Hitler and the Nazis killed millions of people. In the beginning, they killed people with bullets, but then they used gas. But, wait a minute. There is a very important story here, that almost nobody is talking about; the healthcare system, doctors, and nurses.

After WWI ended in 1918, Germany went through severe economic hardships, and the nation saw the rise of different political factions and ideals. One group that emerged was Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist Party.

There was rampant inflation at that time. There was great poverty, and social disadvantage because of the reparations which had to be paid back after the treaty of Versailles. The money was devalued, and they saw a strong leader that was restoring order.

The Nazi party had an idea about superior race and began a period of racial hygiene laws. The basis for Hitler`s plan of racial hygiene was a concept called EUGENICS, which is the pseudo-science of developing a superior race.

This is what`s interesting to me, because, before Hitler came to power, across the world the whole theory of eugenics was something that many nations already had embraced.

Eugenics is the belief that through selective breeding, whether it`s cows, sheep, or people, through selective breeding positive eugenics is the ability to breed offspring that will carry the best traits. The theory of Eugenics, how people should be allowed to breed, to the benefit of the human race and those who weren`t fit and healthy, should not be allowed to have children.

The propaganda was everywhere, and it`s not surprising that the nurses in the Nazi era got caught up in all this. The propaganda was everywhere. About killing people who were considered «life unworthy of life». «Useless feeders» was the term they used.

The nurses were the ones who held the children while they were being killed. They gave them the overdoses of drugs. They were the ones who put them out on the verandas to die of hypothermia. The nurses were also the ones who withheld the feeding, so the children would die of starvation.

Caught on in England, the United States, Japan, Scandinavia, Germany was NOT at the forefront of this. The Nazis actually learned much of their Eugenics initially from the United States. We also know that Henry Ford supported Hitler with millions of dollars.

Some of these Eugenic health care policies were developed in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These U.S policies were emulated by Germany and incorporated into the governing philosophy of applied biology.

There were laws in a book in Virginia that said you could sterilize people. The Nazis took their 1933 sterilization law and mimicked it after the U.S law. There was a time in which there were letters in the U.S journals saying; «Look at the Nazis have gotten ahead of us, we better catch up».

When Hitler came along with his racial theories, he realized that these Eugenics was a really good idea, and he manipulated it to fit his racial theories, all mixed in with the jews, the gypsies, and everybody else who was considered racially inferior.

All of this would lead to an appalling era in world history called Holocaust. A period of persecution and mass murder.

The Holocaust has been defined as the 12 year period, from Hitler`s rise to power in 1933, until the end of the war, in 1945.

It was government planned, government-supported mass extermination or mass killing.

While it was targeted towards the Jewish people, there were many other groups of individuals that suffered during the Holocaust. Hitler convinced the German people that the Jews were their enemy and the cause of their problems. He then created an atmosphere of racial intolerance and hatred of people deemed to be racially inferior.

Every genocide, whether it`s Rowanda or Holocaust, begins with «We» versus «Them».

Hitler used the jews and other people as scapegoats for all that was wrong in Germany. Particularly the economic woes. So, he set up the «We» versus «Them.» He institutionalized that.

In 1933, the Nazi government passed the Nurnberg laws for the protection of hereditary health. This legalized involuntary sterilization. Nazi doctors sterilized 400,000 citizens against their will. «Eugenized» 200,000 disabled German children and adults, and created the gas chambers and crematoria that were used for the mass murder of six million Jews, Poles, and gypsies.

Without the full support of physicians, scientists, and nurses, the Holocaust, as it unfolded, could never have happened.

In the U.S, there were laws that could require that people be sterilized against their will. Sterilization laws were widespread in the U.S. Most notably in Indiana and North Carolina. But other states including California and Virginia, allowed sterilization, even into the 1970s.

In fact, in the early 20th century, the U.S led the world in compulsory sterilizations.

A very famous law was passed in Virginia that said it was okay to sterilize the retarded. It was brought before the Supreme Court, and Chief Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes said; «three generations of imbeciles are enough». He said it was okay to sterilize.

In the U.S, it didn`t go further. But in Germany, it became the leading ideology. Then it was implemented into action.

Hitler promised the German people they were creating the Master Race.

The Master Race would have been the Nazi’s view of a blond, blue-eyed, healthy person, who had no genetic defects and who was pure Aryan.

In the 1920s and 1930s, Germany`s medical community was considered the best in the world.

You weren`t a real doctor in the U.S unless you went to Germany to study, and when you came back and said; «you know, I studied in Germany,»

With all this, it came to some arrogance and some feeling that «we are so superior to everybody else».

Germany was at the forefront. They had the best teaching of anatomy and physiology in medicine. Germany was very advanced, not only in the medical field, but Germany was the best civilization among the European countries.

It was the height of technology, the height of science, and how was it possible that these people

became mass murders?

The majority of nurses were not members of the Nazi Party. However, to have a job in Germany, a nurse had to belong to one of several nursing organizations. There were five organizations for nurses.

Among these, the National Socialist Nurses and the Red Cross Nurses swore an oath of allegiance to Hitler. Additionally, the Protestant Nurses’ organization said that it «greets National Socialism with an open heart.»

Surprisingly, more physicians, percentage-wise, joined the Nazi Party than the population in general. The physicians were probably taken with the fact that we can use our science to improve the human race.

Many physicians and nurses enthusiastically supported the Nazi regime and were involved in all aspects of the Holocaust. About 40% of German physicians were in the Nazi Party while the lawyers and teachers and the other white-collar professions joined in much lesser numbers.

If you didn`t join the Nazi Party, there was no retribution.

Using inflammatory propaganda, Hitler and the Nazis began a campaign against the Jews. Bad things happened to the jews. They were discriminated and Jewish children could no longer go to regular schools.

People cannot keep their jobs at the university, or other professions. Hitler said; «follow me. Never mind God, never mind religion, just follow me. Do what I am asking you to do.»

Since the regime was totalitarian and they were very good at public campaigns and propaganda, and they had enough scientists and physicians that were already marching to the drum.

Propaganda is an extremely powerful way to convince people of their way of thinking.

Germany`s medical establishment began to support the Nazi Party, except for Jewish doctors, who were ostracized.

The official journal of the German Medical Association started to have a swastika on their journal.

They got rid of all the Jewish physicians, authors, people in the office of all the different associations or societies very quick. In five or six years, they got them out of all the academic and professional establishments.

Social Darwinism said;» we need to eliminate this inferior person that was handicapped, that was maybe mentally disturbed. We want a healthy, thriving society. In Germany, the proponents of the Eugenic movement were the most prominent, the most powerful establishment. The legal system became Nazified immediately.

It required lawyers, it required doctors, bureaucrats, and administrators, but many of the nurses were the ones who carried out the injections.

For a long time, the nurses were the agents of the physicians and the physicians of the Nazi period were agents of the State.

That`s very important because physicians were no longer asked to care for patients but to care for the state. The German Volk.

What was good for the state, was not good for an individual patient.

Obedience was still a part of the way nurses were taught, and the way we taught. So, it`s not surprising that the nurses in the Nazi era got caught up in all this.

Euthanasia programs were established in Nazi Germany in which children and adults were killed if they were considered unfit for life and were a burden on the State. The true meaning of euthanasia would be the mercy killing of a person with their permission or their request, however, this was not the case in Nazi Germany. These killings were without consent. They were murders.

In the 1920s, German lawyer Karl Binding and German psychiatrist, Alfred Hoche co-authored the book; «The Permission to Destroy Life Unworthy of Life.» This book greatly influenced Hitler`s thinking about euthanasia.

Photo by Karolina Grabowska on Pexels.com

Everybody had that propaganda thrown at them. It was common. It was everywhere. It espoused the idea that people who were in some way deficient should be killed so they didn`t carry on the defective genes, and so that they weren`t a burden on the State.

Once you accept that humans can be dehumanized, eventually you can engage in exterminating. This was a gradual powerful and unfortunately very effective process in Germany.

The Nazi euthanasia program first started in 1939 as a means to eliminate handicapped children. You have families, who because of all the propaganda are believe that having a child with negative traits is a bad thing. It`s bad for the health of Germany.

They were killing children with disabilities, children with down syndrome, children with cardiac anomalies, children with cerebral palsy, children who didn`t develop normally, who were considered to be «useless feeders.» That was the term used.

Public health nurses would go to the families and promise them, «if you will give your children to us, your child will get the best care,» so people were falsely led to believe that and relinquished their children.

The nurses were involved in the killing of children by giving them overdoses, by taking them outside knowing that it was going to contribute to their death. The nurses killed their own patients.

How could the nurses come to believe that killing was a legitimate part of their caring role which they did? The propaganda around the whole idea of killing people for the good of the State was profound, even down to children doing exercises in their school books on how much it costs to keep people with a disability, for example.

Midwives and physicians were mandated by German law to report any infant born with a birth defect and the infant would be placed in an institution. Mid-wives were paid for each birth that they reported. Mid-wives were licensed.

One dividing point is in Germany the notion that the health of the public is more important than the

health of the individual. So, consequently removing an unhealthy element was seen as good.

In September 1939, a decision was made to develop an adult euthanasia program for patients in psychiatric facilities. Hitler picked the date to coincide with Germany`s invasion of Poland.

To expand it to include adults the only way we`re going to make this acceptable is to say we need these hospital beds for the war wounded. Why should the state pay to keep totally disabled people alive when our young guys who are sent to the front need to come back home and have cared?

The name of this killing organization was T-4. Eventually, six killing centers were established. The medical staff was ordered to fill out questionnaires to evaluate whether their patients should live or die.

Patients were placed in gas chambers that looked like showers. Then lethal carbon monoxide was pumped into the chambers, killing the patients.

You have to justify and rationalize what you`re doing because you`re doing it, but they actually believed it, and they actually believed that what they were doing was saving the Volk from its contamination, from the infection, that there was a disease, and the disease was handicapped and infirm, and that they needed to be cured through killing. Healing through killing.

They were told they were being transferred. The nurses packed their clothes, their lunch, rode with them on the buses. The hospitals, these six, had specially constructed, kinda breezeways that the buses would go through so the patients could be unloaded into the hospitals, without being viewed by the community.

However, it didn`t take long for the communities near these hospitals to realize what was going on. People would see the buses. The buses were unique. They were painted grey and the windows were

painted over and so forth.

Buses would arrive and within a very short period of time, this acrid smoke would be billowing out of the chimneys. Each hospital had an apartment to write condolence letters to the families. And there were mix-ups.

They would write and say, «We`re sorry to tell you your Uncle Hans died of appendicitis, and maybe he`d already had his appendix removed. People were becoming quite knowledgeable about what was going on.

Even children would taunt other children, saying; «they`re going to put you on the grey bus. You`re going to go up the chimney.» As knowledge of the gassing of patients became widespread, the decision was made to end the T-4 «euthanasia» program in August 1941. This, however, did not end the killing of patients.

The children`s euthanasia program continued unabated until the end of the war.

After the T-4 program, physicians were granted permission to provide a merciful death to any person they deemed to be suffering. These killings which took place at many hospitals throughout the Third Reich were known as «wild euthanasia» or decentralized «euthanasia» and were carried out on an individual basis rather than by gas. Patients, usually selected by physicians but killed by nurses, were administered overdoses of sedatives.

More people died in «wild euthanasia» than in T.4. Why did the nurses follow orders to kill? The doctors dictated the killings but the nurses were the ones who did it. Sometimes, the nurses decided to take things into their own hands and kill the patients because they knew they were going to die anyway, so «he was suffering, so I`ll do it now.»

The Nazis invaded Poland in 1939, and polish jews were rounded up into ghettos and later moved to other institutions for medical experiments. A decision was made by the Nazis in January of 1942 at the Wannsee Conference to go further with the Final Solution and move the jews into death camps.

There were four camps that were specifically created as death camps. It was Belzec, Chelmno, Treblinka, and Sobibor. There were two additional concentration camps that developed a killing portion. That would be Majdanek and Auschwitz.

Some skilled workers were kept alive to work in the camps. The infrastructure the know-how and the personnel of the six T-4 centers were actually transferred to Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka, and they have been the first gas chambers.

Some of the same doctors and nurses who were involved in the euthanasia program took the gas chambers down and reassembled them in the east in Poland at the concentration camps where doctors were selected at the ramps and were involved in supervising the gassings and killings.

So, physicians were involved in all aspects.

Ravensbruck, located in Germany, was a camp for women. Most of them were Polish. There were some jews there, but most of the women were dissenters or women who had caused trouble to the Nazis when the Nazis occupied Poland.

Ravensbruck was located close to one of the largest and most important hospitals in Germany where a lot of research was going on. Reinhard Heydrich was the Nazi protector of Czechoslovakia, who in 1942 was killed by a bomb. He died from the infection of the wounds that he got.

Hitler demanded that doctors should find a cure for these deadly infections.

Ravensbruck, which was close by, had all these women there that they used as lab rats, basically. The women were operated on by the surgeons from this hospital. They had things like wounds created in their legs that were filled up with sawdust, dirt, ground glass to see what would happen to the wound, how wounds developed, how bone became infected. Some of these women were sent to the gas chambers afterward. They were killed.

Some of the women died of course from the experiments. Some of them survived to give testimony in the trials. But nurses were definitely involved in those experiments.

Many German physicians and nurses participated in medical experiments related to racial hygiene in the concentration camps and hospitals. One of the worst was Dr. Josef Mengele. A member of the S.S.

The jews didn`t know where they were and where they were going, but there were rumors in Hungary for four years after the Nazi occupation, that Jews were going to Germany and being killed. The German pharmaceutical company was very heavily involved in the experiments in Auschwitz.

According to the Auschwitz Museum, at least 1,500 sets of twins were used by Mengele in his experiments. Less than 200 survived.

They were truly monsters. The stuff that happened was horrendous. There is no way, ethical justification for much of what they did under the name of medical science, it was done totally without informed consent.

The people used as lab rats had no choice. They were often killed immediately afterward.

In the sterilization experiments performed at Auschwitz, it was often the nurses who would select and prepare the patients for the experiments.

Then they assisted whatever the physicians needed the nurse assistant to do, and kept it secret from the patients as to what was going to happen. Given false assurance that everything is going to be alright. We`re taking good care of you, they said.

At Dachau, a variety of unethical medical experiments were made using the prisoners as guinea pigs. Some of the cruelties are almost unbelievable. The victims were German, Czech, and Polish. Gypsies who have deprived the food and given only brackish yellow seawater for days resulted in, of course, excruciating pain and foaming at the mouth in most cases. Madness.

They did experimentations where they would keep people in freezing temperatures until they were almost dead. Revive them, and then expose them again. They lowered the temperature, raised the temperature again until they froze, and died.

And then they took them directly to the autopsy table in what they call terminal experiments. And so they did low-pressure studies where they took concentration camp prisoners and put them into specially designed rooms where they sucked out the oxygen. Let in the oxygen until their lungs exploded and they died in terminal experiments.

There were studies of bones and muscle and infectious diseases. They were trying out new antibiotics, so they took concentration camp prisoners and cut open filleted, and infected their legs and wounds to create simulated wounds.

We know that the sterilization program, the mercy killing program, and the unlawful atrocious human experimentation program was masterminded, planned, suggested, and implemented by physicians.

Dr. Josef Mengele was able to escape from Germany after the war and avoided apprehension by authorities. Dr. Josef Mengele was the worst that we never got. Mengele`s family was a very wealthy manufacturer in Bavaria. They managed to hide him until they could get him out.

Dr. Mengele lived in South America until 1979 when he reportedly drowned while swimming at a resort in Brazil.

Finally, in May 1945, the war in Europe ended when the Germans surrendered to the Allies, and the guns were silent. After the war, the Allies conducted the famous Nurenberg Trials, and the world became aware of the atrocities of the Nazi doctors and nurses.

We don`t know the figures of the nurses who were involved, because they were the workforce in these hospitals. Some nurses killed themselves and some were hanged. Under the trial, some of the nurses said; «I thought I was relieving people from their suffering.»

Others said; «These people had no life at all,» or «I needed to keep my job.» Many of the nurses said; «I was just following orders.»

Just following orders was not going to be an acceptable defense to murder or genocide. One of the things that came out of Nurnberg was the notion that everybody is responsible for their own actions.

Not all of the nurses under the Third Reich were compliant with the Nazi ideology. One Austrian SS nurse, Maria Stromberger, showed great compassion toward prisoners at Auschwitz. She heard about what happened in Auschwitz, and couldn`t believe it. «We`re a good and moral people. We wouldn`t do this,» she said.

She helped the victims and smuggled ammunition into the prison camp. Se saved many lives.

Perhaps the most famous of the trials held at Nurnberg before an International Military Tribunal was the so-called «Medical Case» or the «Doctors trial.»

Karl Brandt who was the chief physician of Hitler said; «I did what`s needed to be done. What we did was good», he said. We made German people healthier, he said. So, people were convinced that they were doing something positive in all these atrocities.

23 physicians and scientists were tried for crimes against humanity.

Crimes against humanity was a new concept which was whether it be wartime or not wartime, there are certain things beyond the pale that we are going to hold people accountable. So, genocide was a classic example of a crime against humanity. So, the doctors went on trial.

The prison camps were centers of inhumane experiments, mass murder, and extermination.

Spiegelgrund is still a large, active hospital in Vienna. During the Holocaust, it consisted of a children`s ward, and became infamous for the euthanasia of the children there. The brains of many of these children were saved for years in the basement of Spiegelgrund.

Although current healthcare in the U.S is regarded as among the best in the world. There are elements that should cause us to reflect upon the similarities to German medicine in the 1930s.

It`s important for nurses today to look back to the history and know about it, because unless we know, we can`t stop it from happening again, and it will happen again.

Today, nurses are involved in the legal euthanasia of patients in Belgium, Holland, and Switzerland. Nurses are also involved in executions in countries where the death penalty is legal.

How does any person know what is right from wrong? You have to have a moral compass. If somebody doesn`t have any morals, it`s very difficult for them to understand or judge for their own knowledge what is wrong and what is right.

But if it hurts another human being, it is morally wrong

Those who cannot remember the past, are condemned to repeat it. And that is exactly what is happening. We are dealing with the same issues today and we always need to be alert. We see nurses that are not speaking out about errors about the doctors even today.

After the Holocaust, the motto was; «Never again, never again should Holocaust happen.» Learning about the Holocaust is a very powerful way to learn empathy and compassion. Only by educating people that we must learn to live in peace and harmony with each other, regardless of skin and color or the economic situation.

The question is how did one of the most advanced societies in art, music, theatre, writing, and medicine become mass murders?

It`s easy to believe the Holocaust could never be repeated. The factors leading up to it are not unique to Germany. They are human factors that are present in every country, every culture, and every generation.

If it could happen in one of the most advanced societies in human history, it can happen again anywhere. It`s up to each of us to learn from the past and be ready to interrupt the forces that may try to exploit the few for the benefit of the majority.

We have a similar situation today. Politicians, PMs, and Presidents are speaking to you live on TV. They tell you what to do. But they aren’t experts. In other words; they are told what to say. In other words; we all need to trust experts, like physicians, doctors, nurses, and big pharma.

But today, we have a lot of unwaxed people around the world protesting against Covid-19 restrictions because they are skeptical of the vaccine. What would it be like if everybody in the world said yes to everything the experts say? If people in Germany were more skeptical in the ’30s and ’40s, they would have saved millions of lives.

This story is interesting because Germany at that time in the ’30s was the most advanced society in art, music, theatre, writing, and medicine, so how did they become mass murders? Don`t blame Hitler. And what about all the German people? Did they sleep, or maybe they were silent by fear?

Leave a comment

Filed under Politics

Biden sets out a $2 trillion US infrastructure plan to be funded by corporate tax hike

A once in a generation investment. That`s what president Biden called his $2 billion program of infrastructure spending. Biden said it will create millions of jobs while giving roads, utilities and American industry a badly needed upgrade.

But somebody have to pay for it, but who? «We the people» of course. The corporations. And there is one simple way to do that: TAX. Minimum wages are rising. So are the taxes, and what is that suppose to mean? It means the inflation is coming.

«I`m proposing a plan for the nation that rewards work. Not just rewares wealth. It builds a fair economy that gives everybody a chance to succeed. And it`s going to create the strongest, most resilient innovative economy in the world,» Biden said in a speech a few days ago.

The Biden administration plans on modernizing 32,000 kim of highway, 500,000 charging points for electric autos, and bringing back key industries such as chip production back to the U.S. Chips are still mostly produced in Asia. (Bringing back chip industries sounds like a Trump strategy).

The project is expected to take eight years to complete, and some of the funding will come from a corporate tax hike from 21 to 28 percent. Biden`s supporters say the program will create millions of well.paid jobs, and stregthen America`s ability to compete with China.

2 trillion dollars is a lot of money and there is no doubt that this program will boost the semiconductor industry, but also the EV industry.

Biden said he is not worried about the U.S economy at all. At the same time, Janet Yellen makes a push for global minimum corporate tax. She doesn`t want a race to the bottom, and warns of dangers to the American economy if U.S acts alone in raising corporate tax rates.

When Obama hiked corporate taxes, businesses fled. One of the largest corporations in the world; Apple, ended up in Irland thanks to a great offshore plan, but Trump were bringing the company back to the U.S.

It speaks for itself. The more money corporations pay in tax, the less competetive they are on the world stage.

The time we are living in today, is similar to the 30`s, and Biden`s infrastructure plan is often comparead to Franklin D. Roosevelt`s «New deal».

President Franklin D. Roosevelt

The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulations enacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States between 1933 and 1939.

The programs focused on what historians refer to as the «3 Rs»; relief for the unemployed and poor, recovery of the economy back to normal levels, and reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression ( the stock market crached in 1929).

The first deal (1933 – 1934) dealt with the pressing banking crisis through the Emergency Banking Act and the 1933 Banking Act. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration provided $500 million ($9,88 billion today) for relieft operations by states and cities, while the short-lived CWA gave locals money to operate Make-work projects in 1933 – 1934.

The Securities Act of 1933 was enacted to prevent a repeated stock market crash.

The second New Deal in 1935 – 1936 included the National Labor Relations Act to protect labor organizing, the Works Progress Administration relief program (which made the federal government the largest employer in the nation), the the Social Security Act and new programs to aid tenant farmers and migrant workers.

The final major items of New Deal legislation were the creation of the United States Housing Authority and the FSA, which both occurred in 1937, and the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, which set maximum hours and minimum wages for most categories of workers.

Keep in mind that all this happened a few years before the World War II occurred.

The economic downturn of 1937 – 1938 and the bitter split between the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations labor unions led to major Republican gains in Congress in 1938.

Conservative Republicans and Democratas in Congress joined the informal conservative coalition. By 1942 – 1943, they shut down relief programs such as the WPA and the CCC and blocked major liberal proposals.

Nonetheless, Roosevelt turned his attention to the war effort and won reelection in 1940 – 1944. Furthermore, the Supreme Court declared the NRA and the first version of the Agricultural Adjustment Act unconstitutional, but the AAA was rewritten and then upheld.

Republican president Dwight.D. Eisenhower (1953 – 1961) left the New Deal largely intact, even expanding it in some areas. In the 1960`s, Lydon B. Johnson`s Great Society used the New Deal as inpiration for a dramatic expansion of liberal programs, which Republican Richard Nixon generally retained.

However, after 1974 the call for deregulation of the economy gained bipartisan support. The New Deal regulation of banking (Glass-Steagall Act) lasted until it was suspended in the 1990`s.

From 1929 to 1933 manufacturing output decreased by one third, which economist Milton Friedman called the Great Contraction. Prices fell by 20%, causing deflation that made repaying debts much harder.

Unemployment rate from 1910 to 1960

Unemployment in the United States increased from 4% to 25%. additionally, one-third of all employed persons were downgraded to working part-time on much smaller paychecks. In the aggregate, almost 50% of the nation`s work-power was going unused.

Before the New Deal, deposits at banks were not insured. When thousands of banks closed, depositors lost their savings as at that time there was no national safety net, no public unemployment insurance and no Social Security.

The depression had devastated the nation. As Roosevelt took the oath of office at noon on March 4, 1933, all state governors had authorized bank holidays or restricted withdrawals. Many Americans had little or no access to their bank accounts.

Farm income had fallen by over 50% since 1929 (stock market crash). An estimated 844,000 non-farm mortgages had been foreclosed between 1930 – 1933, out of five million in all. Political and business leaders feared revolution and anarchy.

Real GDP from 1910 to 1960

In 1935, Roosevelt called for a tax program called the Wealth Tax Act (Revenue Act of 1935) to redistribute wealth. The bill imposed an income tax of 79% on incomes over $5 million. It raised the bitterness of the rich who called Roosevelt «a traitor to his class» and the wealthy tax act a «soak the rich tax».

The Roosevelt administration was under assault during Roosevelt`s second term,which presided over a new dip in the Great Depression in the fall of 1937 that continued through most of 1938. Production and profits declined sharply.

Unemployment jumped from 14,3% in May of 1937 to 19% in June 1938. The downturn was perhaps due to nothing more than the familiar rhythms of the business cycle, but until 1937 Roosevelt had claimed responsibility for the excellent economic performance.

That backfired in the recession and the heated political atmosphere of 1937.

Keynes did not think that the New Deal under Roosevelt ended the Great Depression: «It is, it seems, politically impossible for a capitalistic democracy to organize expenditure on the scale necessary to make the grand experiments which would prove my case, except in war conditions.»

Worldwide, the Great Depression had the most profound impact in Germany and the United States. In both countries the pressure to reform and the perception of the economic crisis were strikingly similar.

When Hitler came to power he was faced with exactly the same task that faced Roosevelt, overcoming mass unemployment and the global Depression. The political responses to the crisis were essensially different; while American democracy remained strong, Germany replaced democracy with fascism, a Nazi dictatorship.

The initial perception of the New Deal was mixed. On the one hand, the eyes of the world were upon the United States because many American and European democrats saw in Roosevelt`s reform program a positive counterweight to the seductive powers of the two great alternative systems, communism and fascism.

As the historian Isaiah Berlin wrote in 1955: «The only light in the darkness was the administration of Mr. Roosevelt and the New Deal in the United States».

By contrast, enemies of the New Deal sometimes called it «fascist», but they meant very different things. Communists denounced the New Deal in 1933 and 1934 as fascist in the sence that it was under the control of big business. They deopped that line of thought when Stalin switched to the «Popular Front» plan of cooperation with liberals.

To contact the author: post@shinybull.com

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and may not reflect those of Shinybull.com. The author has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of the information provided; however, neither Shinybull.com nor the author can guarantee such accuracy. This article is strictly for informational purposes only. It is not a solicitation to make any exchange in precious metal products, commodities, securities, or other financial instruments. Shinybull.com and the author of this article do not accept culpability for losses and/ or damages arising from the use of this publication.

Leave a comment

Filed under Politics

I Hate Norway

Stacy Abrams is nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize as Georgia investigates her group for voter registration fraud. Who cares? Not Lars Haltbrekken, who is the man that nominated Abrams. Lars Halbrekken is a member of Norway`s Socialist party and nominated Stacy Abrams for her work on voter registration and rights.

A lot of people went nuts when they heard about this earlier this week. But this is not the first time people went nuts regarding the Nobel Peace Prize. The last time people went nuts was when Barrack Obama won the prize. But why? Nobody didn`t understand that. Nor Barrack Obama.

This is very embarrassing for the Nobel Peace Prize Committee, but also for Norway. Giving Obama the prize was a shame and people called the Committee clowns. They lost a lot of credibility and they did not have their annual Peace Prize Concerts since then. They say lack of money is the reason, but we all know why they have a low profile.

Nominating Stacy Abrams is also a shame because we don`t know what happened about the election in Georgia yet. But we can assume that Lars Haltbrekken is satisfied because he is obviously not a Trump supporter.

He is a Norwegian environmentalist and was elected to the Parliament of Norway in 2017 for the Socialist Left Party. In the ’90s Lars tried to prevent natural gas power plants in Norway. A man who grew up in Trondheim.

Ingrid Galadriel Aune Falck is another one from Trondheim. She is a Viking. Well, she was. Right after Qanon (dressed as a Viking from Scandinavia) and his friends stormed Capitol Hill on January 6th, she resigned as a leader of a Viking re-enactment group.

Historically, the Vikings do have a shady reputation, and events in modern times have not made that easier to get past. You know, the Nazis and all that, Ingrid wrote on her blog.

For years, MSM in Norway has talked a lot about the Vikings, and for some people, it is very important to be part of something strong and powerful. A system that can make fear. But Ingrid didn`t want to be part of an organization that has become a Nazi party.

Qanon-shaman (Jake Angeli) with his «horned costume» stormed the US congress, but he also had Viking-tattoos on his body. One of them was the logo of Ingrid`s former re-enactment company, Hands-on History.

Let’s be clear; most Viking re-enactors are kind and respectful, regardless of their level of geekiness. However, every basket has some rotten eggs. And some of these rotten eggs don`t even try to disguise their white supremacist smell, Ingrid wrote on her blog.

The same can be said about the US. Qanon doesn`t represent the Christian community on the right side. He is one of the few extremists.

At the end of Ingrid`s blog, she wrote; I`m letting go of a beast I can`t control. And from now on I`m choosing to laugh instead of getting angry. Sorry guys, I`m out!

Last year, the police in Norway said the biggest threat wasn`t Al-Qaida, but the Nazi`s. A country that is struggling with domestic terrorists.

Philip Manshaus is the last known terrorist who was radicalized in Trondheim. A 21-year-old man who was active on the internet on various forums for anti-immigrant groups. He was armed with multiple weapons and opened fire in a mosque in Norway.

One person was injured before the attacker was overpowered by a 75-year old worshiper. Hours after the attack, the dead body of his stepsister was found in his own house. He murdered his own step-sister (17) who was adopted from China.

Philip Manshaus said in the court that there is a Genocide going on in Norway.

Manshaus was inspired by New Zealand-terrorist Brenton Harrison Tarrant, a 28-year-old man from Australia. He attacked Christchurch in New Zealand on 15 March 2019. He began his attack at the Al Noor Mosque in the suburb of Riccarton and continued at Linwood Islamic Centre. He killed 51 people and injured 40.

Tarrant is a self-avowed white supremacist, and Australia, where the gunman was from, has also seen an increase in xenophobia, racism, and Islamophobia. Tarrant also said that he like Communist China (editor; we all know what they do to Christians and Muslims).

Tarrant was inspired by Fjotolf Hansen (born Anders Behring Breivik), a terrorist who committed the 2011 Norway attacks. On 22 July 2011, he killed eight people by detonating a van bomb amid Regjeringskvartalet in Oslo, then killed 69 participants of a Workers’ Youth League (AUF) summer camp in a mass shooting on the island of Utoya.

Since his imprisonment, Fjotolf Hansen has identified himself as a fascist and a Nazi, who practices Odinism and used counter jihadist rhetoric to support ethnonationalism.

He admitted to the crimes and said the purpose of the attack was to save Norway and Western Europe from a Muslim takeover, and that the Labour Party had to «pay the price» for letting down Norway and the Norwegian people.

After his arrest, he referred to himself as «the greatest monster since Quisling (a Nazi who overtook Norway during World War II).

Fjotolf also alluded to himself as the future regent of Norway, master of life and death, while calling himself «inordinately loving» and «Europe`s most perfect knight since WWII. He was convinced that he was a warrior in a «low-intensity civil war» and had been chosen to save his people.

He described plans to carry out further «executions of categories A, B, and C traitors» by the thousands, the psychiatrists included, and to organize Norwegians in reservations for the purpose of selective breeding.

Genocide in Norway has happened before, and it is possible that it can happen again because history tends to repeat itself. We know the history of Norway`s five national minorities. We know the way of life of jews, Kven, Gypsies, and Romani people (tater).

The minorities have always been treated very badly. Jews were sent to Holocaust and killed during WW II. While Danish Jews were granted ordinary civil rights in 1814, the Constitutional Assembly in Eidsvoll, Norway, that same year went in the opposite direction. Jews were banned in Norway.

The 1800s saw emerging nationalism and a vision of one nation and one people in Norway, and there was little room for being different.

The abuse of power continued in Norway, Now in the form of assimilation.

The Child Protection Act of 1896 allowed the authorities to take children away from all travelers (tater), while the Vagrancy Act of 1900 made the itinerant lifestyle a crime.

Later on, modern genetics came to have a significant influence in Norway and on Norwegian government policy from the 1920s onwards. This hit the Romani people (tater) hard. Alongside groups such as alcoholics, criminals, and so-called “tater” were seen as carrying undesirable genes.

The Sterilisation Act of 1934 allowed for forced sterilization of people with serious mental conditions, people who were mentally deficient, or people whose mental development was severely impaired.

It has been documented that up until 1977 at least 125 Norwegians of traveling ancestry were sterilized, while Romani people (tater) were sterilized without basis in law. Many of them were left with physical and mental scars, and several later committed suicide.

Lobotomy was also carried out on Romani people (tater), resulting in death for some of them.

The Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1949 for his now-discredited procedure of the lobotomy, which involves serving nerve connections within the brain of a mentally ill person.

Today the lobotomy is considered a barbaric treatment for mental illness, and that`s why relatives of lobotomy patients now have started a campaign to have the prize rescinded.

Mr. DeForest Kelley (as Dr. Leonard «Bones» McCoy) once said; My God, man, drilling holes in his head`s not the answer. The artery must be repaired. Now put away your butcher knives and let me save this patient before it`s too late.

What will tomorrow`s historians say about today`s cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy? It remains to see. People are still suffering and have pain even today. Fortunately not by lobotomy.

In 1897, the government delegated the work to assimilate the Romani people (tater) to a private organization, commonly known as the Norwegian Mission for the Homeless. The mission ran children`s homes, schools, and labor colonies for Romani people with the express aim of eradicating the Romani people/ tater culture.

One important strategy was to remove children from their parents and then raise them as «good Christians» and settled Norwegians in children’s homes. In total at least 1,500 children were separated from their parents, often growing up without knowing about their traveler (tater) background.

Many of these children suffered violence and abuse. More than one hundred families of Romani people/tater descent were sent to Svanviken labor colony in Nordmore to be «weaned off» their traditional way of life and become «good Christians».

The Norwegian Mission for the Homeless continued its activities in Svanviken until 1989, but the Norwegian government is still kidnapping children even today. They take 5 kids from their parents every single day.

The Norwegian government is breaking civil human rights and many of these cases end up in the European Court of Human Rights in Haag. Many of the cases I have heard of is shocking.

The human rights are pretty clear: You have a right to life. Art 3; freedom from torture and inhuman or degrading treatment. Art 4; freedom from slavery and forced labor. Art 5; right to liberty and security. Art 6; right to a fair trial, and Art 7; No punishment without law.

Will Ferrell Hates Norway in a new Super Bowl commercial. Not for any crimes, Nazism, Vikings, or White supremacists, but because they have too much electic vehicles.

Author Hannah Arendt wrote the book «The Origins of Totalitarianism» in which she discussed how it was possible for a democratic state such as Germany to turn into a cold-blooded totalitarian state.

Arendt makes the point that a totalitarian system may become even worse than dictatorships, as the latter implements fear of death when speaking up against the authorities, but totalitarian states do the same, but in a more subtle way.

The aim of totalitarian systems is to control every aspect of a person`s life, his views on the family, genders, his feelings towards the church, religion, and every aspect of life are to be controlled.

In such states, the population is held in fear of repercussions from the police and state authorities, in constant fear of losing their jobs, their reputation, and friends. Fear becomes the tool to keep the population in check. Nobody dares to say much, out of trepidation for what may happen then.

One of Arendt`s main points was that precisely because modern democracies incorporates well-developed institutions and the hierarchical structure, people tend to obey orders without daring to think freely.

They view themselves as part of a system with little or no personal responsibility.

Arendt found that it was not the desire to be brutal to certain ethnic groups such as Jews and Gypsies, that was the root for the «obedience towards the state» that permeated the German society.

It was the indifference, lack of empathy and willingness to obey status quo that permeated the German population.

Since groupthink was vital in this society, no one dared to step out of the group. Those who did quickly ended up in the same concentration camps where intellectuals dissidents joined the Jews and others who were unwanted.

The point is that societies that cultivate just laws prosper.

To contact the author: post@shinybull.com

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and may not reflect those of Shinybull.com. The author has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of the information provided; however, neither Shinybull.com nor the author can guarantee such accuracy. This article is strictly for informational purposes only. It is not a solicitation to make any exchange in precious metal products, commodities, securities, or other financial instruments. Shinybull.com and the author of this article do not accept culpability for losses and/ or damages arising from the use of this publication.

Leave a comment

Filed under Politics